Ways to Make Composts
How to Compost
The Method of Making Compost Fertilizer from Straw
- Method of composting:
- Site selection Fertilizer-making site should be located in the leeward sunward area with flat terrain and close to the water source, which can be made in the open air all the year round. A kind of
- Material preparation (Take 1 ton of dry straw as an example)
(1) 1000 kg of crop straw.
(2) 20 kg corn flour or wheat bran or rice bran, and 5-10 kg urea can be added if conditions permit.
(3) Bacillus Yikang compost fermentation strain 400g (two bags of this product).
(1) The length of straw (e.g. corn straw) should be 1-3 centimeters when it is crushed or cut by a hay cutter (wheat straw, rice straw, leaves, weeds, peanut seedlings, bean straw, etc.) can be fermented directly, but the fermentation effect is better after crushing.
(2) Water the crushed or cut straw with water to wet and permeate, and the moisture content of straw is generally controlled at about 60%.
(3) Mix 20 kilograms of corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) with 400 grams of bacteria. Sprinkle corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) mixed with bacteria evenly on the surface of straw irrigated with water by hand. Use spade and other tools to turn over and mix, stack into long strips of 2 meters wide, 1.5 meters high and unlimited length, and cover them tightly with plastic cloth.
(1) Warming up stage: from room temperature to 45 C, generally only one day, at this time can turn over the stack.
(2) In the future, when the heap temperature reaches above 60 C, it needs to be turned over, and the basic state of decomposition can be reached in 15-20 days, and the fertilizer can be applied directly. Maturity mark straw turns brown or black-brown, soft and elastic when wet, brittle and fragile when dry.
(1) Straw fertilizer is generally used as base fertilizer and can be applied wetly. Soil should be covered for topdressing. Semi-decomposed fertilizer is applied to crops with longer growth period, straw fertilizer with higher maturity is applied to crops such as melons, fruits and vegetables with shorter growth period, semi-decomposed fertilizer is used in sandy soil, and fertilizer with higher maturity is best applied to clay soil.
(2) Straw fertilizer is rich in organic matter, balanced nutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and contains various trace elements. It is a suitable fertilizer for all kinds of crops and soils. It has remarkable effects on improving crop quality and increasing yield. A kind of
Note: It is suggested that 20-30% livestock and poultry manure or other organic substances should be properly added in composting, so that the fertilizer efficiency is better and more comprehensive.
（3）Rapid Fermentation of Straw Returning to Field:
Quick Returning Technology: Digging Trough – Stacking Straw – Adding Bacteria and Yikang – Sealing
1) Digging trough: Digging a low trough 1.5-2 m wide and 0.3 m deep in idle fields such as fields and courtyards, the length of which can be determined according to the amount of straw. _
2) Stacking straw: According to the standard of 60% moisture content of straw (i.e. holding the water in groups and keeping the watermarking by hand without dripping, it is appropriate to lay down and disperse), so that the straw can absorb enough moisture and accumulate straw in the tank.
3) Adding organic fertilizer starter: first, add 1 bag (200g) of Bacteria Yikang to dilute 20 kg corn flour or rice bran or wheat bran (1000 kg straw material), then stack straw while adding animal manure or urea to adjust C/N ratio and evenly sprinkle corn flour with Bacteria Yikang. Or rice bran or wheat bran.
4) Sealing: When the pile is about 1:5 meters high, photograph it and seal it with clay or plastic film. About 15 days in summer and 40 days in winter can be fertilized and returned to the field.
Quick in-situ Returning Technology of Straw Returning to the Field: Straw Crushing-Adding Bacteria Yikang and Feces-Sealing-Tillage-Tillage
1) Straw crushing: The straw is crushed into small segments of about 3-4 cm with a crusher.
2) Add Bacteria Yikang: first, add 2 bags of Bacteria Yikang (400 grams) into 40 kg corn flour or rice bran, wheat bran dilution; decomposed feces and urine 300 kg; all kinds of straw 700 kg. Mix the above materials well, then add water, adjust the moisture content of straw to about 60%, accumulate in the earth and compact slightly. A kind of
3) Sealing: After accumulating the material, the material is sealed with mud. A kind of
4) Tillage: Sprinkle the rotten straw evenly on the ground, and immediately carry out deep tillage, raking and further maturation of the straw.
Rapid Decomposition and Return of Rice Straw to Field Technology Harvesting Fertilizing Adding Green Seedlings to Strengthen Throwing Seedlings
1) Harvesting: one is to keep high stubble harvested, tail grass left in the field, 100% straw returned to the field; the other is low stubble harvested, after threshing also returned to the field in full.
2) Fertilization: Planned application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the field.
3) Bacterial Yikang: According to 1000 kg of straw, add 500 grams of Bacterial Yikang, evenly sprinkle in the field. When applied, the water layer in the field was 2-3 cm.
4) Seedling throwing: After applying Bacillus Yikang, the farmland can be thrown for one day. When throwing rice seedlings, the surface of the field should maintain a certain water layer. The water layer of the high stubble paddy field and straw strip mulch is shallow, 2-3 cm. The paddy field covered with straw is deep, about 5 cm. Submerged straw is the standard to ensure the contact between seedling roots and water.
Technical Operating Points
1) Adequate moisture: straw must absorb enough water, the moisture content is generally controlled at about 60%. A kind of
2) Adjust the appropriate C/N: Add appropriate amount of animal manure or nitrogen fertilizer to regulate the C/N of the compost.
3) Blend material: Bacteria Yikang added should be evenly sprinkled in straw, or stirred evenly with utensils.
4) Ventilation: Microorganisms ferment faster under aerobic conditions, and the condition of ventilation will directly affect the stalk maturation rate. So don’t step on it when stacking, in order to facilitate ventilation. After stacking, it is sealed with mud mixed with straw. When the temperature in the stack exceeds 65 degrees, ventilation or dump should be adopted.
5) Sealing: When stacking, the surrounding and top of the reactor should be sealed to prevent water evaporation and nutrient loss.
6) Warming up: When composting straw in winter or cold area, plastic film is added to the compost to increase the temperature. Fourth, attention should be paid to the sufficient moisture content of materials for stacking and composting, the uniform mixing, sealing, heat preservation and water retention, so as to ensure that straw is quickly matured and accumulated without stepping on it, and take a slight photo.
Last, the suitable area, all kinds of straw crops can be treated by straw composting and returning technology after harvesting.