Category: Healthing & Health


Food


Food refers to substances that can meet the normal physiological and biochemical energy needs of the body and extend the normal life span. For the human body, the substance that can meet the needs of normal life activities and prolong life is called food.
Food is usually composed of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and water, which can provide nutrition or pleasure for human beings or organisms by eating or drinking. Food may come from plants, animals or other organisms, such as fungi, or fermented products such as alcohol. Human beings obtain food in many different ways, such as collecting, farming, animal husbandry, hunting, fishing and hunting.

It is generally believed that the digestible substance for human or animal consumption is called food. According to the definition of the experts, the food refers to the substance that can meet the normal physiological and biochemical needs of the body and extend the normal life span. For the human body, the substance that can meet the needs of normal life activities and prolong life is called food.
General food definition: refers to the intoxicated substances that can be eaten and digested and absorbed to form the energy needed by the body to supply activities or regulate physiological functions.
The emergence of agriculture is the origin of human civilization. Previously, people depended on hunting and gathering for food, and their lives depended on how much wild plants and animals provided. As ancestors around the world have gradually observed and familiarized themselves with the growth laws of some plants and gradually learned how to cultivate crops on the basis of collecting economy and long-term living practice. Due to regional economic development differences, there are three major early farming centers in the world, West Asia, East Asia and Central and South America. Zagros Mountains in West Asia, southern Asia Minor Peninsula, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon along the Eastern Mediterranean are the earliest agricultural origins in the world. They are also the origins of barley, wheat and lentils. Rice was cultivated in ancient India around 4500 B.C. and beans were planted in northern Thailand around 7000 B.C. Categories, gourds, cucumber crops, Mexico, Peru and Bolivia in Central and South America are the origin of maize, beans, potatoes and other crops.


Ancient Egyptians mainly ate soybeans, lentils, garlic, radish, cabbage, cucumber and lettuce. The fruits they eat are: dates, figs, grapes, pomegranates and various melons, etc.
The emergence of agriculture and domestication of livestock meet people’s needs for food. Crop cultivation and animal breeding mean that human beings begin to replace wild food provided by nature with food produced by themselves, thus ending hunting and collecting life and creating a new era.
If the relatively primitive stage of the agricultural era is the origin of civilization, then the transformation of wild food into domesticated food is the beginning of food civilization. Civilization is the result of mankind’s response to natural challenges. The rise of agriculture and animal husbandry is the turning point for mankind to finally get rid of barbarism and move towards civilization. Crop cultivation and animal breeding were originally designed to have a certain source of food and live a stable life. Through their own production activities, human beings continuously optimize crop and animal species to supply and meet the daily needs of human activity energy. It includes vegetables, fruits and meat. Vegetables generally refer to the different parts of a plant, which can be cooked and cooked into food, and other plants (mostly herbal plants) besides grain. They can be divided into leafy vegetables, melons, beans and rhizomes. Fruit refers to the plant organs with seeds in a plant or the fruits of some plants with more water content for food. There are fresh fruits, nuts, dried fruits and so on; commonly used for family or guests. Meat and meat refer to livestock (pigs, cattle, sheep, etc.), poultry meat (chicken, duck, goose, etc.), aquatic products, fish, etc., which are subcutaneous tissues and muscles of animals, including edible parts of any animal used for food, containing high protein and fat, and a large number of calories. (Summary of Food Nutrition by Xia Shengqing et al.)

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The Practice of Lifelong Learning in Different Countries


Since the establishment of the theory of lifelong education, it has been attached great importance by all countries. Channels, and with the principle of lifelong education to restructure and design their own national education system, trying to establish a comprehensive implementation of lifelong education system from kindergarten to university for the aged, from family education to enterprise education.

1. Making Regulations

Through legislation, many countries have established the theory of lifelong education in law as the basic guiding ideology for the development and reform of education in China today and in the future. For example, Japan established the Lifelong Learning Bureau in 1988 and promulgated and implemented the Lifelong Learning Revitalization and Rectification Act in 1990. In the United States, a Lifelong Education Bureau was set up within the Federal Bureau of Education, and the Lifelong Learning Act was enacted and promulgated in 1976. In 1971, the French National Assembly enacted and passed a relatively perfect adult education law, the Lifelong Vocational Education Act, and in 1984 passed a new Vocational Continuing Education Act, which made Supplementary Provisions on some issues. In Korea, lifelong education was written into the Constitution in the early 1980s, and lifelong education policy began to be implemented. Many countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and Canada have enacted corresponding laws for lifelong education.

2. Incorporating Adult Education

In 1976, the Nairobi Conference adopted the Recommendations on the Development of Adult Education, which proposed that adult education should be part of lifelong education as a whole, and that education should not be limited to the school stage, but should be extended to all aspects of life and to all areas of skills and knowledge. Under the influence of this idea of lifelong education, governments all over the world regard adult education as the forerunner to promote the process of lifelong education, attach great importance to adult education, and ensure the development of adult education by making laws. In 1976, Norway was the first country in the world to adopt the Adult Education Act, which regarded adult education as the basis of lifelong learning system and promoted coordination and cooperation in various fields of adult education. In 1982, Korea enacted the Social (Adult) Education Act and institutionalized social (Adult) education. The education plan adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1973 classifies adult education as the fourth kind of education in parallel with the primary, secondary and higher education of general education. In order to ensure the implementation of adult education, many effective measures have been taken in many countries, such as flexible policies on admission conditions, paid education leave system, economic assistance, and the establishment of adult credit cumulative courses.

3. Opening to the Society

Changing the closed structure of schools and forming an open and flexible educational structure is an important practice in implementing lifelong education in various countries. In 1995, Japan held a “Lifelong Learning Review Conference” composed of well-known people from all walks of life, which required higher education institutions to open their doors to society and widely absorb in-service adults into higher education institutions. Adult universities in Japan have been incorporated into the University plan. Some senior high schools also hold open lectures to make high schools open to the community and play the role of cultural center of the school. In the United States, especially after the 1960s, social colleges aimed at district development have been vigorously developed, and their openness to adults has reached almost no limit. Many universities have set up university opening departments to carry out educational activities for “non-traditional students”. There are also open universities and adult education ministries in the UK, which provide adult education. In many countries in Europe, universities provide opportunities for continuing and returning education through public lectures, adult education centers and correspondence courses.

4. Developing in Various Channels

Many countries consciously incorporate cultural organizations, community organizations, vocational associations, enterprises and institutions into the lifelong education system, making full use of all kinds of resources and facilities with educational strength and value in society, so as to integrate education and society. In 1988, Japan put forward the proposal of “transition to lifelong education system”, developing social education organizations, establishing learning information networks, establishing a lifelong education system integrating family, society and school education, and incorporating various scientific and cultural facilities such as cultural clubs, libraries, museums and activity centers into the scope of education. Many non-educational institutions in the United States, such as prisons, trade unions, the military and hospitals, are also actively engaged in adult education. Many companies also provide training to their employees on a regular basis.
Although all countries have made some achievements in the field of lifelong education, on the whole, lifelong education is still in practice in all countries in the world, and no country has really established a complete lifelong education system.

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Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Water Pollution


Taking the water system as a whole, according to the geographical distribution of towns and industrial and mining enterprises along the coast of the water system, as well as the self-purification capacity, pollution capacity and pollution status of the water system, comprehensive prevention and control measures are taken to prevent and control water pollution. It includes various engineering technology means and management measures, which have the characteristics of integrity, comprehensiveness and regionality.
Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution is a comprehensive application of various measures to prevent and control water pollution. Prevention and control measures involve two types of engineering and non-engineering, mainly:
(1) Reducing the discharge of wastewater and pollutants, including saving production wastewater, stipulating water quota, improving production technology and management system, increasing the reuse rate of wastewater, adopting new technology without pollution or less pollution, and formulating material quota, etc. For water-deficient cities and industrial and mining areas, regional recycling water and wastewater reuse systems should be developed.
(2) Developing regional water pollution prevention and control systems, including formulating urban water pollution prevention and control plans, river basin water pollution prevention and control management plans, implementing the total amount control system of water pollutant discharge, developing sewage after proper manual treatment for irrigation farmland and reuse for industry, establishing sewage reservoirs without polluting groundwater, and low water. Periodic storage of sewage reduces sewage discharge load and conducts controlled dilution during flood period.
(3) Develop wastewater treatment technologies with high efficiency and low energy consumption to treat wastewater.

Meaning

Comprehensive prevention and control of pollution refers to the comprehensive use of various measures to prevent and control water environmental pollution from the whole point of view. It is very necessary to implement comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution, because China is a country with relatively scarce water resources, and there are two manifestations: one is resource-based water shortage, the other is water-quality-based water shortage. For a long time, the purification treatment of sewage outlet based on point source control can not effectively solve the problem of water pollution. Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution must be carried out from the overall point of view of the region and water system in order to fundamentally control water pollution and solve the problem of water shortage caused by water quality.

Why do this

The necessity and urgency of comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution are embodied in two aspects: first, the contradiction between water resources shortage and unbalanced supply and demand is prominent, and the serious pollution of water environment makes this contradiction more prominent and urgently needs to be solved;

Why is it so urgent?

Secondly, the purification treatment of sewage outlets based on point source control can not effectively solve the problem of water pollution. Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution must be carried out from the whole region or water system, and the tail control of point source control should be transferred to the source control in order to control water pollution fundamentally.

Principle

The basic principle of sewage prevention and control is the combination of prevention, treatment and management.

Prevention

Through effective control and preventive measures, the amount of pollutants discharged by pollution sources can be reduced to the minimum.
(1) For industrial pollution sources, the most effective control method is to promote cleaner production. Cleaner production refers to the advanced production technology with the smallest utilization of resources and energy and the least pollution emission. The main technical routes adopted in cleaner production include: reforming raw material selection and product design, replacing toxic and harmful raw materials and products with non-toxic and harmless raw materials and products; reforming production process to reduce consumption of raw materials, water and energy; adopting recycling water system to reduce wastewater discharge; and recycling the usefulness of wastewater. Composition, reduce the concentration of wastewater, etc. Cleaner production advocates life cycle analysis and management of products rather than end-treatment.
(2) For domestic pollution sources, effective measures can be taken to reduce their emissions. Such as promoting the use of water-saving appliances, improving people’s awareness of water-saving, reducing water consumption, thereby reducing domestic sewage discharge.
(3) For agricultural pollution sources, in order to effectively control non-point pollution sources, we must start from “prevention”. Promoting scientific fertilization and rational use of pesticides in farmland can greatly reduce the residual fertilizers and pesticides in farmland, thereby reducing the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides contained in farmland runoff.

Governance

Through various measures to control pollution sources and polluted water bodies, the pollution sources can achieve “standard discharge” and the water environment can achieve the corresponding water quality function.
It is very difficult or almost impossible for pollution sources to achieve zero discharge. Therefore, it is necessary to properly treat polluted (waste) water to ensure that the discharge standards set by the state or local authorities are met before it is discharged into the water body. Great attention should be paid to the relationship between industrial wastewater treatment and municipal wastewater treatment. For industrial wastewater containing acid, alkali, toxic and harmful substances, heavy metals or other special pollutants, local treatment should be carried out in the plant to meet the discharge standards to the water body or the water quality standards to the urban sewer. Those industrial wastewater similar in nature to municipal domestic sewage can be treated together with municipal sewage as a priority. It is not only unnecessary but also uneconomical to set up sewage treatment facilities separately. The design of urban sewage collection system and treatment plant should not only consider the need of water pollution prevention, but also the need to alleviate the contradiction of water resources. In areas where water resources are scarce, the treated municipal wastewater can be reused for agriculture, industry or municipal administration and become stable water resources. In order to meet the needs of wastewater reuse, its collection system and treatment plant should not be too centralized, but should be close to the reuse target.
In addition, according to the characteristics of water pollution, we should actively take physical, chemical, biological engineering and other means to control pollution, so that the deteriorated aquatic ecosystem can be gradually restored.

Management

Strengthen the supervision and management of pollution sources, water bodies and water treatment facilities in order to promote treatment. Pipe also plays an important role in water pollution control. Scientific management includes regular monitoring and inspection of pollution sources, water treatment facilities and sewage treatment plants, and regular monitoring of water environmental quality to provide basis and information for environmental management.

Main methods

Functional zoning of water environment is the basis for comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution
According to the current functions of water environment and the needs of economic and social development, the functional zoning of water environment is based on surface water environmental quality standards, which is the basis of water source protection and water pollution control. For example, the surface water environmental quality standard divides the water area control functions into five categories: Class I is mainly applicable to source water and national nature reserves; Class II is mainly applicable to primary protection areas of centralized drinking water sources, precious fish protection areas, fish and shrimp spawning grounds; Class III is mainly applicable to centralized drinking water sources II. Class IV is mainly suitable for general industrial water use and recreational water areas where human body does not contact directly; Class V is mainly suitable for agricultural water use areas and waters where general landscape requires.

Principles and methods

The principles of division are as follows: priority protection of centralized drinking water source areas; water body should not reduce its current use function, taking into account planning function; water areas with multiple functions should be classified according to the highest function; professional water standard requirements should be considered as a whole; consideration should be given to each other between upstream and downstream areas, with due consideration to potential functional requirements; and rational use of water body itself. Net capacity and environmental capacity; Consider the combination of land industrial rational layout; Consider the impact on underground drinking water sources; Practical and feasible, easy to manage.

Functional zoning method: according to the principle of adapting measures to local conditions and seeking truth from facts, according to actual measurement, empirical analysis and administrative decision-making.
Controlling pollution and protecting water sources according to functional areas.

(i) The level of protection shall be defined according to the functions of the waters and the requirements for water pollution control shall be put forward. For example, special protected waters refer to the first and second categories of national Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB3838-2002). No new sewage outlets shall be built for such waters. Existing sewage discharge units shall be strictly controlled by local environmental departments in order to ensure that the water quality of accepted waters meets the water quality standards for specified purposes; and key protected waters shall be protected. It refers to the third class waters stipulated by GB3838-2002, and the first class discharge standards stipulated in the Comprehensive Sewage Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) are applied to the sewage discharged into the waters.
(ii) The total amount control shall be implemented according to the functional areas. The so-called total amount control refers to the maximum allowable emission of some kind of pollution in order to maintain the environmental target value of an environmental functional area. Therefore, water environmental functional zoning is the basis for implementing total water pollution control.
Formulating comprehensive prevention and control plan of water pollution

Main contents and working steps

(i) Based on the investigation and evaluation of water environment, the main problems of water environment are analyzed and determined.
(ii) Division of water pollution control units. According to the analysis conclusion of water environment problems, considering the administrative division, water area characteristics and pollution source distribution characteristics, the source area and receiving water area are divided into water pollution control units.
(iii) Put forward environmental objectives and demonstrate accessibility. At the Fourth Session of the National People’s Congress, the strategic goal of environmental protection across the century was clearly put forward, which is the basis for the goal of comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution. Environmental objectives should include the total amount control objectives of major pollutants and the specific objectives of various sub-items of comprehensive water environment improvement. It is necessary to demonstrate the accessibility of environmental objectives.
(iv) Determine the amount of major pollutant reduction and the proportion of reduction allocation.
(v) To formulate a comprehensive water pollution prevention and control plan and implementation plan.
(vi) Support and guarantee for the implementation of the plan. Including: analysis of sources of funds, formulation of annual plans, implementation of pollutant discharge declaration and registration and pollutant discharge permit system proposals, as well as the necessary technical support.
Several principles that must be adhered to in formulating comprehensive water pollution prevention and control plan
(i) Focusing on economic construction is conducive to the coordinated development of economy and environment.
(ii) Take rational development and utilization of water resources as the core, focusing on the whole process control. By changing the mode of economic growth and promoting cleaner production, pollution can be eliminated in the process of economic reproduction.
(iii) Overall planning, highlighting key points, adapting measures to local conditions and stressing practical results.
(iv) adhering to the principle of comprehensive improvement. Systematic analysis of the planning scheme is needed to achieve overall optimization.

Emission permit system, transition from concentration control to total quantity control

Practice has proved that in carrying out this system, we must follow the following five requirements in the light of China’s current technological level and management system.
(1) Determine the total amount control target from the actual point of view. When it is difficult to determine the environmental capacity of the receiving water body for discharging pollutants, according to the principle of the total amount control plan put forward by the State Environmental Protection Administration in December 1995, the total amount of discharged major water pollutants in 1995 can be regarded as the target total amount, and the proportion of reduction can be determined according to the actual technical and economic level of the region, and allocated to the main body. Pollution sources.
(2) Choose the target of issuing certificates. The main target of issuing permits is the large polluters in the region. A city can catch more than a dozen or dozens of households. It is necessary to select the key control points through investigation and evaluation of pollution sources. For example, Anyang City put forward that we should do a good job of 2, 5 and 8, and control 8 and 9, that is, we should catch 20, 50 and 80 large polluters in batches, and control 70%, 80% and 90% of the city’s water pollution load.

  • Control the total amount of sewage. Measure according to local conditions and control the total amount of sewage.
  • Strengthen environmental supervision and management after issuance of certificates.
  • Pay attention to practical experience and constantly improve the level. In order to implement the sewage discharge permit system, we should first carry out pilot projects, sum up experience and gradually popularize it.
  • But we should also pay attention to the new problems in the process of implementation, such as the paid transfer of pollutant discharge indicators and the trading of pollutant discharge rights.
  • Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Water Pollution in Township Enterprises
  • The discharge of industrial wastewater from township enterprises was only 3.9 billion tons in 1997.
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Housing Provident Fund


Housing provident fund refers to the long-term housing savings deposited by state organs and institutions, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns, other urban enterprises and institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their working staff on an equal basis.
In 2011, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction is jointly working with various departments to study and revise the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund, and to liberalize the provisions on individual withdrawal of provident fund for housing rent payment. In 2013, some cities introduced measures to allow workers suffering from major diseases or their immediate relatives to withdraw provident fund for emergency relief.
In 2014, the three departments issued a document to cancel the housing provident fund personal housing loan insurance, notarization, new housing evaluation and compulsory institutional guarantee and other fee items, so as to alleviate the burden of loan workers.
In 2015, the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund (revised draft for examination) intends to stipulate that the deposit ratio of workers and units of housing provident fund shall not be less than 5% or more than 12%. From February 21, 2016, the interest rate of employees’housing provident fund account deposits has been adjusted to the benchmark interest rate of one-year fixed deposits. The interest rate after the increase is 1.50%.
From July 1, 2017, all the national housing provident fund management centers will handle the transfer and continuation of housing provident fund in different places through the platform according to the requirements of the “Operation Rules for the Transfer and Continuation of National Housing Provident Fund in different places” issued by the Ministry of Housing and Construction. All national housing provident fund management centers will “network” through a unified platform for the transfer of housing provident fund business in different places. According to incomplete statistics, more than 20 cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Fuzhou and Guangzhou, have access to the transfer platform of the National Housing Provident Fund. On May 15, 2018, the Beijing Housing Provident Fund Management Center issued the Notice on the Cancellation of Copies of Identity Certificates as Requirements for the Collection of Housing Provident Fund and the Processing of Loan Business.

Housing accumulation fund refers to the long-term housing reserve deposited by state organs, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns and other urban enterprises, institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their employees.

Definition

The definition of housing provident fund includes the following five aspects:

(1) Housing provident fund is only established in cities and towns, but not in rural areas.
(2) Only on-the-job workers can establish the housing provident fund system. Urban residents without jobs and retired workers do not implement the housing accumulation fund system.
(3) Housing provident fund consists of two parts, one part is deposited by the unit where the staff and workers work, the other part is deposited by the individual staff and workers. The personal deposit of employees shall be withheld by the unit and deposited into the individual account of housing accumulation fund together with the deposit of the unit.
(4) The long-term nature of housing provident fund deposit. Once the housing provident fund system has been established, the staff and workers must pay in accordance with the regulations uninterruptedly during their working period. Except for the retirement of the staff and workers or other circumstances stipulated in the Regulations on the Administration of the Housing Provident Fund, they may not suspend or interrupt it. It embodies the stability, unity, standardization and mandatory of housing provident fund.
(5) Housing provident fund is the personal housing reserve fund which is specially used for housing consumption expenditure stored by workers according to regulations. It has two characteristics:
First, the accumulation, that is, housing provident fund is not an integral part of workers’wages, not in the form of cash, and must be deposited in the housing provident fund management center in the entrusted bank to open a special account management.


Second, the special purpose of housing provident fund, the storage period can only be used for purchasing, building, overhauling self-housing, or paying rent. Employees can withdraw the housing provident fund in their accounts only when they retire, die, lose their working ability completely and terminate their labor relations with the unit or move out of their original residence city.
According to China’s regulations, enterprises should deposit housing provident fund for employees, regardless of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises.
The part of housing provident fund paid by enterprises and institutions does not belong to the attributes of total wages, but belongs to the expenditure of the nature of enterprise cost and expense. According to the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Deduction of Enterprise Wages and Salaries and Workers’Welfare Expenses (State Tax Letter [2009]3), the term “total salaries and salaries” referred to in Articles 40, 41 and 42 of the Implementation Regulations of the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China refers to enterprises in accordance with document No. 3 of the State Tax Letter [2009] Article 1 stipulates the total wages and salaries actually paid, excluding the social insurance premiums and housing provident fund such as the employee welfare premiums, the employee education funds, the trade union funds, the old-age insurance premiums, medical insurance premiums, unemployment insurance premiums, industrial injury insurance premiums and maternity insurance premiums borne by enterprises.

Importance

(1) Guarantee, the establishment of the staff housing accumulation fund system, for the staff to solve housing problems faster and better provide security;
(2) Mutual assistance, the establishment of housing provident fund system can effectively establish and form a mechanism and channels for housing workers to help workers without housing, and housing provident fund in terms of funds to help workers without housing, reflecting the mutual assistance of housing provident fund for workers;
(3) For a long period of time, every working worker in a town must pay the individual housing accumulation fund from the date of taking part in the work to the time of retirement or termination of labor relations; the unit where the worker works should also pay the housing accumulation fund for the worker’s subsidy according to the regulations.

Features

(1) Generality, urban employees, regardless of the nature of their work units, family income and whether they have housing, must deposit housing accumulation fund in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations;
(2) Compulsory (policy nature). If a unit fails to register the deposit of the housing accumulation fund or to set up an account of the housing accumulation fund for its employees, the management center of the housing accumulation fund has the power to order it to do so within a time limit. If it fails to do so within the time limit, it may be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Regulations and may apply to the people’s court. Enforcement;
(3) Welfare, apart from the housing provident fund deposited by employees, units should also pay a certain amount of money for employees, and the interest rate of housing provident fund loans is lower than that of commercial loans;
(4) Returnability, the retirement of employees, or the complete loss of labor capacity and termination of labor relations with the unit, the removal of household registration or outbound settlement, etc., the housing provident fund deposited will be returned to the individual employees.

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Road Traffic Safety


It refers to the state in which personal casualties or property losses can be controlled at an acceptable level in the course of traffic activities. Traffic safety means that the possibility of loss to people or things is acceptable; if this possibility exceeds the acceptable level, it is unsafe. As a dynamic open system, the safety of road traffic system is not only restricted by internal factors of the system, but also disturbed by external environment of the system. It is closely related to human, vehicle and road environment. Any unreliable, unbalanced and unstable factors in the system may lead to conflicts and contradictions, resulting in unsafe factors or unsafe states.

Characteristic

(1) Traffic safety is a state under certain dangerous conditions, and it is not absolutely free from traffic accidents.
(2) Traffic safety is not an instantaneous result, but a description of the process or state of the traffic system in a certain period or stage.
(3) Traffic safety is relative and absolute traffic safety does not exist.
(4) For different periods and regions, the acceptable level of loss is different, so the criteria for measuring the safety of the transportation system are different.

Measures

Raising the level of road traffic safety is a matter of great benefit to the country and the people. Many experts and scholars have carried out extensive and in-depth research in this area. Traffic accident prevention is one of the main tasks of traffic safety and an important part of traffic engineering research. From the point of view of traffic engineering, it is considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from three aspects: laws and regulations, education and engineering, and from the point of view of people, vehicles, roads and environment, which constitute the four elements of road traffic, it is also considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from these four elements.

Improving Transportation Legal System

Strengthening the construction of road traffic safety laws and regulations system is a direct and effective measure to improve the overall level of road traffic safety. At present, the content of our country’s road traffic safety regulation system has been covered in a number of different laws, regulations and other traffic management normative documents, and it plays an active and important role in our country’s road traffic operation practice. With the development of the times, the legal system should be amended and adjusted accordingly.

Strengthen Traffic Safety Education

(1) Carry out traffic safety propaganda
Traffic safety propaganda is an important way to publicize and educate the masses. In carrying out propaganda activities, we should attach importance to achieving practical results and link traffic safety with everyone’s vital interests so as to arouse people’s attention to traffic safety. We should adopt propaganda forms popular with the masses, incorporate them in people’s daily work and life, and in cultural entertainment. At the same time, propaganda activities must mobilize the strength of society to the greatest extent possible, and strive for the depth and breadth of propaganda to ensure the quality of propaganda.
(2) Strengthen traffic safety education
Traffic safety education, like other cultural knowledge, should be carried out systematically from the early childhood. Before high school, every stage of education was listed as a compulsory course, which enabled students to establish the concept of traffic legal system, traffic safety, traffic ethics and safety prevailing concepts from the beginning of education. To educate the society, we should adopt different ways and methods according to different objects, and carry out targeted education.

Improve vehicle safety performance and maintain good vehicle condition

To improve the safety performance of vehicles, we should take active safety measures and passive safety measures.
(1) Active safety measures
1) Improve side and front vision, install reversing lights and alarms to prevent traffic accidents caused by blind areas.
2) Improve the perspective performance of windowpanes to prevent traffic accidents caused by rain, snow and frost.
3) Take anti-glare measures to improve the illumination of headlamp in order to prevent traffic accidents caused by glare and insufficient illumination of headlamp.
4) In terms of power performance, the overtaking acceleration capability should be improved and the drive anti-skid system (TCS) should be installed.
5) In the aspect of stability, we should improve the stability and portability of operation, such as installing electronic stabilization program (ESP).
6) In braking aspect, the auxiliary braking system, ABS anti-lock braking system, retarder and braking system fault alarm system are installed to improve the anti-skid performance of tires, so as to ensure safety.
7) In terms of accident prevention measures, we should also improve the recognition performance of vehicles, including rear, signs and driving directions, in order to prevent accidents.
8) Active anti-collision warning system is adopted. When the vehicle encounters danger, the driver can be reminded in time. If the driver fails to take measures in time because of his errors, the system can automatically take measures to avoid danger (such as deceleration, bypass, etc.).
(2) Passive safety measures
1) In-car measures
In-car measures mainly include increasing occupant space as much as possible, i.e. the strength of the car body, in order to reduce the deformation of the collision, using toughened glass or partition glass to reduce the injury of the occupant caused by the accident, enlarging the area of the steering wheel to make it elastic, and making the switches, knobs and handles inside the car as round as possible. Sliding and soft; door and roof have enough strength to protect the safety of passengers and facilitate rescue. In addition, fire prevention performance, safety belt and airbag play an important role in occupant safety protection.
2) Outside measures
Extravehicular measures mainly refer to minimizing injuries when crashing bicycles and pedestrians, such as bumpers should be as smooth and flexible as possible, movable rearview mirrors and fenders, and protective nets connected with trailers, etc., which will have certain effects on the protection of the weak traffic.

Strengthen the Construction of Road and Traffic Safety Facilities

(1) Improving road conditions
Considering from the aspect of road alignment design, we should strictly follow the horizontal and vertical curves of the designed road to make the curves and ramps conform to the technical standards of highway engineering. The safety of various alignment combinations should be fully considered.
(2) Improving road safety facilities
Road safety facilities mainly include partition belts, safety fences, traffic signs, markings, sight guidance facilities and anti-glare facilities. For urban traffic, pedestrian overpasses, underground passages, traffic safety islands, etc.
(3) Implementing traffic control
Traffic control can be divided into traffic signal control and traffic regulation control. Traffic signal control refers to the establishment of traffic lights at road entrances and intersections to reasonably control the driving of vehicles. Traffic regulation control includes setting up one-way traffic section, turning lane, bus lane, etc.
(4) Establishment of Traffic Information System
Traffic information is also known as traffic information. In order to ensure the safety and rapidity of vehicles traveling on automobile lanes or urban trunk roads, public security and management departments should report traffic congestion, weather, road ahead or temporary traffic control to drivers in time so that drivers can change their countermeasures in time.
(5) Establishing Emergency Rescue System for Accidents
The monitoring and forecasting system estimates possible accident areas according to abnormal weather conditions, adopts information collection and liaison system, and assigns special personnel to monitor and make preparations. When an accident occurs, advanced communication equipment and means should be used to quickly and reliably contact the relevant departments to deal with the accident in a timely and effective manner so as to ensure road safety and smoothness.
(6) Improving the Road Traffic Environment
The improvement of road traffic environment mainly includes two aspects: on the one hand, improving road environment, making drivers have good driving sight distance and constantly changing visual effect, improving the monotonous environment which makes drivers tired and irritable; on the other hand, improving traffic flow environment, keeping good density as far as possible, and avoiding as possible. No mixed traffic flow.

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Greenhouse Gases


Not every gas in the atmosphere absorbs intensely long-wave radiation from the ground. The greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere are called greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, freon and water vapor. They absorb almost all the long-wave radiation emitted from the ground, and only a very narrow region absorbs very little, so they are called “window region”. It is through this window that the earth returns 70% of the heat from the sun to the space in the form of long-wave radiation, thus maintaining the ground temperature unchanged. The greenhouse effect is mainly due to the increase in the number and variety of greenhouse gases by human activities, which makes the 70% value decrease and the remaining heat makes the earth warm.

What is greenhouse gas?

However, although CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a strong ability to absorb long-wave radiation from the ground, their amount in the atmosphere is very small. If the atmospheric state of pressure as a atmospheric pressure and temperature of 0 C is called the standard state, then the whole atmosphere of the earth is compressed to this standard state, its thickness is 8000 meters. At present, the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere is 355 ppm, or 355 parts per million. Converting it to the standard state, it will be 2.8 meters thick. This is 2.8 meters thick in the atmosphere of 8,000 meters thick. Methane content is 1.7 ppm, corresponding to 1.4 cm thick. The ozone concentration is 400 ppb (ppb is one thousandth of ppm), which is only 3 mm thick after conversion. Nitrous oxide is 310 ppb, 2.5 mm thick. There are many kinds of freon, but the most abundant Freon 12 in the atmosphere is only 400 ppt (ppt is one thousandth of ppb), converted to the standard state of only 3 microns. This shows that there are few greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also for this reason that human release without restrictions can easily lead to rapid global warming.

History of development

As early as 1938, British meteorologist Carlinda pointed out that CO2 concentration had risen by 6% since the beginning of the century after analyzing sporadic CO2 observations around the world at the end of the 19th century. He also found that there was a warming tendency in the world from the end of last century to the middle of this century, which caused great repercussions in the world. To this end, Kellin of Scripps Oceanographic Research Institute established an observatory in 1958 at an altitude of 3,400 meters in the Maunaroya Mountains of Hawaii, and began the precise observation of atmospheric CO2 content. Because Hawaii is located in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean. Therefore, it can be considered that it is not affected by terrestrial air pollution and the observation results are reliable.

From April 1958 to June 1991, the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Maunaroya Mountains was observed. It was found that the atmospheric CO2 content in 1958 was only about 315 ppm, which reached 355 ppm in 1991. The seriousness of the problem also lies in the fact that only about half of the 5.5 billion tons of fossil fuels (about 4 tons of CO2 per ton) that humans burn annually (1996) enter the atmosphere and the rest are mainly absorbed by marine and terrestrial plants. Once the ocean is saturated with CO2, the atmospheric CO2 content will increase exponentially. In addition, they also found seasonal variations in CO2 content, with a difference of 6 ppm between winter and summer. This is mainly due to the winter drought and summer glory of vegetation on the vast continents of the Northern Hemisphere, that is, plants absorb CO2 in summer, which makes the atmospheric CO2 concentration relatively lower.

Includings

According to the determination of CO2 concentration in the air of sealed bubbles in the Antarctic and Greenland continental ice sheets, the CO2 content in the atmosphere has been relatively stable for a long time in the past, about 280 ppm. Only from the mid-18th century, before and after the Industrial Revolution began to rise steadily. That is to say, it took 240 years for human beings to increase the atmospheric CO2 concentration from 280 ppm to 355 ppm.

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2. Although its concentration in the atmosphere is much lower than CO2, its growth rate is much higher. According to the Second Climate Change Assessment Report issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1996, CO2 increased by 30% in 240 years from 1750 to 1990, while methane increased by 145% in the same period. Methane, also known as biogas, is produced when organic matter decays under anoxic conditions. For example, paddy fields, compost and animal manure all produce biogas. Nitrogen monoxide is also known as laughing gas, because inhaling a certain concentration of this gas can cause facial muscle spasm, which looks like laughing. It is mainly produced by burning fossil fuels and organisms using chemical fertilizers. Although the ozone content in the atmosphere decreases in the stratosphere, it increases in the troposphere, which will be discussed later. Freon gases are compounds of chlorine, fluorine and carbon; they do not exist in nature and are entirely human-made. Because of its low melting point and boiling point, non-flammable, non-explosive, odorless, harmless and excellent stability, it is widely used in the manufacture of refrigerants, foaming agents and cleaners. Although the highest concentrations of Freon 12 and 11 in the earth’s atmosphere are very few, their growth rates have been very high in the past, both of which are 5% per year. Because of its severe destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, its concentration in the atmosphere is expected to decrease gradually from the beginning of the 21st century according to the 1987 International Montreal Protocol.

It should be noted that although the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases other than CO2 is much lower than that of CO2, some of them are several orders of magnitude smaller, their greenhouse effect is much stronger than that of CO2. Therefore, their contribution to atmospheric greenhouse effect, according to the second IPCC Report, is only one order of magnitude lower than that of CO2. If their total contribution to the greenhouse effect of the Earth’s atmosphere is small compared with CO2 before 1960, it is not negligible that in the near future they will go hand in hand with CO2 and even exceed CO2.
April 2, 2018, DOE Labor

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Earthworm 


Earthworms, commonly known as earthworms, also known as Eel, are the representative animals of Oligochaeta in annelida. Earthworms are saprophytic living animals. They live in humid environment and feed on corrupt organic matter. They are full of a large number of microorganisms but seldom get sick. This is related to the unique number of antimicrobial immune systems in these earthworms.
In scientific classification, they belong to unidirectional earthworms. The body is cylindrical (distinct from the cylindrical shape of linear animals), symmetrical on both sides and segmented: it consists of more than 100 segments. After the Eleventh segment, there is a dorsal foramen in the middle of the back of each segment; there is no skeleton, it belongs to invertebrates, with bare body surface and no cuticle. Except for the first two segments of the body, all the other segments have bristles. Hermaphroditism, allogeneic fertilization, reproduction by the ring to produce cocoons, reproduction of the next generation. There are more than 2500 known earthworms. Darwin pointed out in 1881 that earthworms are the most important animal group in the world’s evolutionary history.

Physiological structure

Body wall and secondary body cavity

The body wall of earthworms consists of cuticle, epithelium, circular muscular layer, longitudinal muscular layer and coelomic epithelium. The outermost layer is a single layer of columnar epithelial cells whose secretions form cuticle. The membrane is very thin, consisting of collagen fibers and non-fibrous layers with small holes. Cylindrical epithelial cells were mixed with fine glands cells, divided into mucous cells and protein cells, can secrete mucus and make the body surface moist. Earthworms encounter intense stimulation. Mucous cells secrete a large amount of mucus to wrap the body into a mucous membrane, which has a protective effect. Epithelial cells have short basal cells at the base, and some people think that they can develop into columnar epithelial cells. Sensory cells aggregate to form sensory organs and disperse between epithelial cells. The nerve fibers of a thin layer of nerve tissue under the epithelium are connected at the base. In addition, there are photoreceptor cells, the base of epithelium, also connected with the nerve fibers below it.

The muscles of earthworms belong to the twill muscles, which generally account for about 40% of the body volume. They are well-developed and flexible. When the longitudinal muscular layer of some segments of the earthworm contracts and the circular muscular layer relaxes, the segment becomes thicker and shorter, and the retracted bristles born on the body wall obliquely extend into the surrounding soil; at this time, the circular muscular layer of the former segment contracts, the longitudinal muscular layer relaxes, the segment becomes thinner and longer, and the bristles retract, thus breaking away from the surrounding soil. The bristle support of the latter segment pushes the body forward. In this way, the contraction wave of muscles gradually passes forward and backward along the longitudinal axis of the body.

The coelomic compartment is separated by the septum according to the body segment, and each compartment is connected with a small hole. Each body chamber is formed by the development of left and right two body sacs. The medial part of the sac formed visceral membranes, while the dorsal and ventral parts formed dorsal and peritoneal mesenteries. In earthworms, the mesentery of the abdomen degenerates, only part between the intestine and the abdominal vessels exists, while the mesentery of the back disappears. The part between the anterior and posterior coelomic sacs is closely together, forming a septum. Some species have no septum in the esophagus.

Digestive system

The digestive tract runs longitudinally in the central part of the body cavity and passes through the septum. The muscular layer of the wall of the digestive tract is well developed, which can improve peristalsis and digestive function. The digestive tract is differentiated into mouth, mouth, throat, esophagus, sand sac, stomach, intestine and anus. The mouth can be turned out from the mouth to ingest food. The pharyngeal muscles are well developed, the muscles contract, and the pharyngeal cavity enlarges to support feeding. There is a single-cell pharyngeal gland outside the pharynx, which secretes mucus and proteinase, moisturizes food and has a preliminary digestive effect. After pharynx, there is a short and thin esophagus with esophageal glands on its wall. It can secrete calcium and neutralize acidic substances. The back of the esophagus is a muscular sand sac (gizzard), lined with a thick cutin membrane, which can grind food. From mouth to sand sac, the ectoderm is formed and belongs to foregut. The digestive tract behind the sand sac is rich in microvessels and glands, which is called stomach. There is a circle of gastric glands in front of the stomach, which functions like pharyngeal glands. The digestive tract enlarges to form the intestine, and its dorsal central fovea enters into a blind canal (typhlosole), which enlarges the area of digestion and absorption. Digestion and absorption are mainly performed in the intestine. The outermost visceral membranes of the intestinal wall specialize into yellow cells. Since the 26th body segment, a pair of conical cecum (caeca) extending forward from both sides of the intestine can secrete a variety of enzymes, which are important digestive glands. The stomach and intestine originate from the endoderm and belong to the midgut. The posterior intestine is relatively short, accounting for about 20 body segments in the posterior end of the digestive tract. It has no blind passage and no digestive function. Open to the body through the anus. The digestive system of earthworms consists of more developed digestive ducts and glands. The digestive ducts are composed of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, crop sac, sand sac, stomach, small intestine, cecum, rectum and anus.

Circulatory system

Earthworms are very special. Like their body segments without obvious merger, their hearts are also divided into several segments in the front of the body, generally 4-5, which are circular, like enlarged blood vessels, so they are also called circular blood vessels. The dorsal side of the annular heart is connected with the dorsal blood vessel from the back to the front, and the ventral side is connected with the abdominal blood vessel from the front to the back. The abdominal blood vessel and its branches are connected with the inferior nerve blood vessel from the front to the back. The annular heart has thicker muscular walls than blood vessels and pulsates. There are also valves that open unilaterally to ensure blood flow from the dorsal to the abdominal vessels. Generally speaking, the blood flow is powered by the pulsation of these independent annular hearts. The direction of blood flow is from back to front (in the dorsal vessels), from back to abdomen (in the annular heart), and from front to back (abdominal vessels and subnervous vessels).
Respiration and Excretion
The excretory organs of earthworms are posterior renal tubules. In general, each segment has a pair of typical posterior renal tubules.

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Bio Engine Composting


Bio Engine Composting

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Decomposition Technology of Raw Chicken Manure Composting

Can chicken manure be used as organic fertilizer if it is not ripe? Chinese style
Answer: No.
1. Not only chicken manure, but also human manure contains a lot of pathogens, eggs and parasites. Unripe manure can not be directly applied to crops.
2. Chicken manure will dissipate most of the heat in the process of ripening. If it is not fertilized directly, it will cause burning roots and seedlings of plants.
3. Nitrogen fertilizer in chicken manure originally existed in the form of protein. Plants could not use protein directly. Only when protein was decomposed into ammonia after fermentation, can they be used by plants.

How to decompose chicken manure?

Chicken manure must be fully decomposed before it is applied. The parasites and eggs in chicken manure, as well as some infectious pathogens, are inactivated through the decomposition process. Because chicken manure produces high temperature in the process of decomposition, it is easy to cause nitrogen loss. Therefore, it is better to add water and 5% calcium superphosphate before chicken manure is decomposed. Chicken manure has become a good base fertilizer for crop cultivation after full maturation. It can be used for all kinds of flowers, seedlings, crops and fruit trees.


The traditional method is to compost chicken manure for fermentation and maturation, which usually takes 3-4 months to mature. Nowadays, through the rapid biological decomposition technology of Nongshengle chicken manure, the decomposition rate can be 10-20 times faster than the traditional method by aerobic fermentation, and the protein and other substances of chicken manure can be converted into more easily absorbed elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After complete decomposition, chicken manure can hardly smell odor. Fermentation of chicken manure with Nongshengle Fecal Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation has the advantages of low dosage, good effect and fast speed. Generally, chicken manure can be completely decomposed in 7-15 days. If the fermentation material is pure chicken manure, under normal conditions, the C/N ratio is generally less than 20, it should be added with appropriate amount of straw, sawdust and other materials with high C/N ratio. Straw can be added as much as chicken manure to mediate the C/N ratio, and because compost fermentation is aerobic fermentation, straw can enhance the looseness and permeability of chicken manure, which is more conducive to fermentation.


Note: It is recommended to use rice, corn, wheat, sawdust and other plant straw with larger carbon and nitrogen content, and to avoid using straw with smaller carbon and nitrogen content, such as beans. Chinese style

Method of decomposition of chicken manure: Before fermentation, mix all kinds of materials evenly and reserve them. During fermentation, the manure starter of Nongshengle was diluted and mixed with chicken manure mixture at the ratio of 1:200. Then it could be accumulated and fermented. The fermentation process is dumped 1-2 times, and the decomposition can be completed in 7-15 days according to the season.
Knowledge of organic fertilizer clinker: The ratio of total carbon content to total nitrogen content in organic matter is called carbon-nitrogen ratio, and their ratio is called carbon-nitrogen ratio.

C/N ratio of common plants:

  • In general, the C/N ratios of gramineous crop stalks such as rice stalks, corn stalks and weeds are very high, reaching 60-100:1.
  • The C/N ratio of leguminous crop stalks is relatively small, such as the C/N ratio of general leguminous green manure is 15-20:1.

Effects of different C/N ratios on Composting

The decomposition and mineralization of organic matter with high C/N ratio is difficult or slow. The reason is that when microorganisms decompose organic matter, they need to assimilate about one part of nitrogen to form their own cell body when they assimilate five parts of carbon, because the carbon-nitrogen ratio of microorganisms is about 5:1. In order to assimilate (absorb and utilize) one portion of carbon, four portions of organic carbon are needed to obtain energy, so 25 portions of organic carbon are needed for microorganisms to absorb and utilize one portion of nitrogen. That is to say, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen of microorganism decomposition of organic matter is 25:1. If the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is too large, the decomposition of microorganisms will be slow and the available nitrogen in soil will be consumed. Therefore, when applying organic fertilizers (such as rice straw) with high C/N ratio or composting materials with high C/N ratio, more N-containing fertilizers should be added to regulate C/N ratio. On the contrary, there are too many nitrogen elements in chicken manure, so more carbon elements such as straw should be added. Chinese style

How to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent:

In order to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent, the manure fermentation strain (original strain) was developed and manufactured. Users could use the manure fermentation strain to cultivate the fermentation agent by themselves, which could reduce the cost by 10 times. Chinese style

Benefits of Feed Fermentation

  • Increase feed utilization rate and reduce feeding cost;
  • Detoxification and detoxification, improve palatability and intake;
  • Improving animal immunity and reducing fecal discharge;
  • Enhance meat quality and flavor to make meat delicious.
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Chess and card why most people love to play


9Chess and card health preservation method refers to a health preservation method that can relieve depression, transfer ideas, stimulate spirit, develop intelligence, enhance friendship, contact feelings and dispel loneliness through various kinds of chess and card entertainment activities. There are many kinds of chess and cards, such as chess, go, checkers, military chess, bridge, mahjong, poker and so on. Chess and card is a kind of game as well as a kind of competition. Most of them are easy to learn and appreciate both elegance and vulgarity. They are both interesting and skillful. They have obvious functions of mental health and fitness.

Health-preserving effect of chess and cards

Chess and cards are scientific, intellectual, competitive and interesting activities, which mainly focus on mental exercise. They can improve people’s memory and brain thinking ability, cultivate people’s good moral cultivation, close cooperation and team spirit adapted to the environment.

Exercise thinking and enlighten wisdom

Playing chess and cards can cultivate people’s ability to think independently, train their thinking and enlighten their wisdom. The two opposing sides dispatched troops and generals on an equal footing to compete in the battlefield. The final victory is less accidental. In this process, participants enhance logic and Dialectics by giving full play to their subjective initiative. Every step in the game is a process of judgment, reasoning, calculation and decision-making. For example, Weiqi, based on military dialectics, needs to be skillfully combined with computational ability, memorization ability, analytical ability, strategic and tactical skills, which can inspire people’s wisdom and help them to develop their intelligence, brain and mind.

Enhancing friendship and cultivating sentiment

Friends can enhance friendship and cultivate sentiment by playing chess or cards. The smooth flow of mood will delay people’s aging, which is also a major health-preserving effect of chess and cards. Taking chess as an example, besides intelligence and skill, it is also better than physical strength and endurance. It is a good way to cultivate one’s character. The popular proverb in chess circle is: game cultivation, prolong life. Ancient people also said that “the good gambler will live a long life”. There are many long-lived chess players in ancient and modern times. One hundred-year-old chess king Xie Xiaxun is a famous longevity star in the chess world; Gaolanquan in the late Ming Dynasty was over 90 years old; modern chess master Lin Yixian also lived to 93 years old.

Improving interpersonal skills

In playing chess and cards, there are many times that we need to have a strategic vision and the ability of overall coordination. These coordination abilities trained in confrontation are also very useful after leaving the chess game. It can lead to the coordination of interpersonal relationships and better adapt to the social environment.

Improve Personality and Assist Rehabilitation

Playing chess and cards can not only get spiritual pleasure, but also cultivate one’s self-cultivation, which is usually called chess and cards. They are also the epitome of human character, making people jump out of the circle of pure competition, emotional regulation, mental health, win or lose, and enter the ranks of elegant entertainment and morality. In some recreation halls set up by health care institutions, there are various kinds of chess specially for the recreation and fitness of the convalescents, so that chess can step out of the general recreational ranks and serve the health care, rehabilitation and improvement of personality.

 Anti-aging

Chess and card activities can exercise people’s thinking, improve intelligence and delay aging.
Enrich people’s spiritual life. Chess activities can not only delight the mind, but also cultivate the body. Concentration and devotion in playing chess and cards can play the role of breathing and vomiting in Qigong exercises, and help to improve memory. The benefits to people are not small. Especially for the elderly, because of their physiological reasons, the functions of viscera and organs are declining day by day, the essence of brain marrow and kidney is deficient, and the thinking, memory and intellectual response are not as good as before. If we can play chess and cards regularly and promote the continuous use of brain thinking intelligence, it will be very helpful to delay aging and prevent the degeneration of brain function.

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