Category: Community Design


What is Express


Express delivery, also known as express delivery or express delivery, refers to a new mode of transportation in which logistics enterprises (including freight forwarders) deliver documents or parcels entrusted by users quickly and safely from the sender’s door to the recipient’s door (hand delivery) through their own independent network or through joint venture cooperation (i.e. networking).
Express delivery can be divided into broad sense and narrow sense. In the broad sense, express delivery refers to the delivery of any goods (including bulk cargo); in the narrow sense, express delivery refers to the urgent delivery service of business documents and small pieces. The object of this textbook research and analysis is mainly the express industry in a narrow sense. According to the standard of service, express delivery generally refers to express delivery service completed within 48 hours. From the definition of express delivery, the following three characteristics of express delivery can be summarized:
From the economic category, express delivery is a branch of the logistics industry, and the research of express delivery belongs to the category of logistics.
From the perspective of business operation, express delivery is a new mode of transportation and an important link in the supply chain.
From the nature of operation, express delivery is a new service trade with high added value.

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The Practice of Lifelong Learning in Different Countries


Since the establishment of the theory of lifelong education, it has been attached great importance by all countries. Channels, and with the principle of lifelong education to restructure and design their own national education system, trying to establish a comprehensive implementation of lifelong education system from kindergarten to university for the aged, from family education to enterprise education.

1. Making Regulations

Through legislation, many countries have established the theory of lifelong education in law as the basic guiding ideology for the development and reform of education in China today and in the future. For example, Japan established the Lifelong Learning Bureau in 1988 and promulgated and implemented the Lifelong Learning Revitalization and Rectification Act in 1990. In the United States, a Lifelong Education Bureau was set up within the Federal Bureau of Education, and the Lifelong Learning Act was enacted and promulgated in 1976. In 1971, the French National Assembly enacted and passed a relatively perfect adult education law, the Lifelong Vocational Education Act, and in 1984 passed a new Vocational Continuing Education Act, which made Supplementary Provisions on some issues. In Korea, lifelong education was written into the Constitution in the early 1980s, and lifelong education policy began to be implemented. Many countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and Canada have enacted corresponding laws for lifelong education.

2. Incorporating Adult Education

In 1976, the Nairobi Conference adopted the Recommendations on the Development of Adult Education, which proposed that adult education should be part of lifelong education as a whole, and that education should not be limited to the school stage, but should be extended to all aspects of life and to all areas of skills and knowledge. Under the influence of this idea of lifelong education, governments all over the world regard adult education as the forerunner to promote the process of lifelong education, attach great importance to adult education, and ensure the development of adult education by making laws. In 1976, Norway was the first country in the world to adopt the Adult Education Act, which regarded adult education as the basis of lifelong learning system and promoted coordination and cooperation in various fields of adult education. In 1982, Korea enacted the Social (Adult) Education Act and institutionalized social (Adult) education. The education plan adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1973 classifies adult education as the fourth kind of education in parallel with the primary, secondary and higher education of general education. In order to ensure the implementation of adult education, many effective measures have been taken in many countries, such as flexible policies on admission conditions, paid education leave system, economic assistance, and the establishment of adult credit cumulative courses.

3. Opening to the Society

Changing the closed structure of schools and forming an open and flexible educational structure is an important practice in implementing lifelong education in various countries. In 1995, Japan held a “Lifelong Learning Review Conference” composed of well-known people from all walks of life, which required higher education institutions to open their doors to society and widely absorb in-service adults into higher education institutions. Adult universities in Japan have been incorporated into the University plan. Some senior high schools also hold open lectures to make high schools open to the community and play the role of cultural center of the school. In the United States, especially after the 1960s, social colleges aimed at district development have been vigorously developed, and their openness to adults has reached almost no limit. Many universities have set up university opening departments to carry out educational activities for “non-traditional students”. There are also open universities and adult education ministries in the UK, which provide adult education. In many countries in Europe, universities provide opportunities for continuing and returning education through public lectures, adult education centers and correspondence courses.

4. Developing in Various Channels

Many countries consciously incorporate cultural organizations, community organizations, vocational associations, enterprises and institutions into the lifelong education system, making full use of all kinds of resources and facilities with educational strength and value in society, so as to integrate education and society. In 1988, Japan put forward the proposal of “transition to lifelong education system”, developing social education organizations, establishing learning information networks, establishing a lifelong education system integrating family, society and school education, and incorporating various scientific and cultural facilities such as cultural clubs, libraries, museums and activity centers into the scope of education. Many non-educational institutions in the United States, such as prisons, trade unions, the military and hospitals, are also actively engaged in adult education. Many companies also provide training to their employees on a regular basis.
Although all countries have made some achievements in the field of lifelong education, on the whole, lifelong education is still in practice in all countries in the world, and no country has really established a complete lifelong education system.

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The real life adventures of Sam Village in the Polar Region are recorded in the streets


By CSB, 20 June 2011
His people sent a polar bear to save their way of life to find itself driving an ice-cream truck around the suburbs, with the aim of reversing global warming, one ice-cream at a time.

Polar Sam Episode #4

The village in the box hit the street.

EPISODE #4 (Previously…… Sun Sam was pushing out a village in a box; he pulled all his ideas aside to concentrate on the task at hand and cheerfully announced them to his small but completely fascinated audience. “This is performance time!”
The equally lively village scene is located in the box container outside the village, full of the entire side of the Polar Sam truck.

“Well,” Sam said, “how do you live? Suburban residents can become………………………………………………………………………………………… “The boys cheered. Doc and Kid Suburbia clapped and grinned, plunged into the passion of Polar Sam.


Blow to the size of the large screen, the details become clearer. “Look! There are sailboats in the lake. ”
Sam’s “remote control” chip.
“There’s another kayak”, “and two swans”, “three ducks!” “Those people are fishing?!” All the water captured the imagination of the boys. The Santa Fe River barely runs, and spring has only one month at most. Or in August’s “monsoon season” rains.
“Where can we get all this water?” Doc Plaza asked suspiciously. “Of course, it’s noticeable, but as Santa Fe gets bigger and bigger, all the water has flowed into the new home, and the river is rather dry.”
“Those’Life machines’are excellent. Imagine that there are several greenhouses in every block. Biological products can decompose anything, even PCBs! “Sam has started now. “So we go into sewer lines, solar pumps into greenhouses, and in a series of high-end translucent glass fibre tanks, water is purified by biomass. Add ultraviolet disinfector and Wallah! Freshwater, higher quality than the original tap water! So the neighbors got fresh fruits and vegetables and fish in the sink, the river was filled all year round, the aquifer was replenished, and the water eventually fed back to Rio Grand without any pollutants, such as medicines! ”
The boys cheered again. The suburban children stared at Polar Sam incredibly. In his ice cream delivery, Uncle Sam’s vest and tail, and his red and white peeled hat, “He looks a little like a clown,” the child said to himself. But seeing the elegance and beauty of his vision in front of him… “This guy is a genius,” he said to himself.
Speaking loudly, Kid Suburbia lashed out, “Can you take it off the Peace Pop stick?”
Sam just laughed at him. “Oh, there’s more!”
Sam continued, “You know how you say it’s so boring, and there’s a group of old ladies living in a 2,400-square-foot house near your home? When the children grow up, their husbands die, or they divorce, but she lives alone, and she wants to stay near her home? Well, imagine these small squares surrounded by Casitas. Your ladies and friends can scale down and stay with their neighbors. She can remain independent and take long walks with friends and shopping. If she needs it, she can get help from the children in the local elementary school. ”
Doc Plaza interposed: “It sounds like a new version of the past, like a big family. I can stand this. ”
The children’s suburban residents laughed. “Yes, then all your girlfriends will be in one place.”
“Hey, don’t knock on it,” Doc retorted. “If I don’t shoot you first, you can live longer than your wife. It’s a great thing to make things easier for people in the middle of the day.”
Kid Suburbia is quiet. “My best friend Harold has been complaining about moving to a smaller place. He wanted to stay in the hood, but he was tired of keeping such a big house. I miss him already. It would be great if our community had one of these high-level Placitas! ”
“Hey brother!” Sam almost shouted. He raised the child’s paw to five. “Welcome to the amazing power of Box in Village!” Four people exchanged senior five. They didn’t know exactly why, but Bells’enthusiasm made them sell it.

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Greenhouse Gases


Not every gas in the atmosphere absorbs intensely long-wave radiation from the ground. The greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere are called greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, freon and water vapor. They absorb almost all the long-wave radiation emitted from the ground, and only a very narrow region absorbs very little, so they are called “window region”. It is through this window that the earth returns 70% of the heat from the sun to the space in the form of long-wave radiation, thus maintaining the ground temperature unchanged. The greenhouse effect is mainly due to the increase in the number and variety of greenhouse gases by human activities, which makes the 70% value decrease and the remaining heat makes the earth warm.

What is greenhouse gas?

However, although CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a strong ability to absorb long-wave radiation from the ground, their amount in the atmosphere is very small. If the atmospheric state of pressure as a atmospheric pressure and temperature of 0 C is called the standard state, then the whole atmosphere of the earth is compressed to this standard state, its thickness is 8000 meters. At present, the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere is 355 ppm, or 355 parts per million. Converting it to the standard state, it will be 2.8 meters thick. This is 2.8 meters thick in the atmosphere of 8,000 meters thick. Methane content is 1.7 ppm, corresponding to 1.4 cm thick. The ozone concentration is 400 ppb (ppb is one thousandth of ppm), which is only 3 mm thick after conversion. Nitrous oxide is 310 ppb, 2.5 mm thick. There are many kinds of freon, but the most abundant Freon 12 in the atmosphere is only 400 ppt (ppt is one thousandth of ppb), converted to the standard state of only 3 microns. This shows that there are few greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also for this reason that human release without restrictions can easily lead to rapid global warming.

History of development

As early as 1938, British meteorologist Carlinda pointed out that CO2 concentration had risen by 6% since the beginning of the century after analyzing sporadic CO2 observations around the world at the end of the 19th century. He also found that there was a warming tendency in the world from the end of last century to the middle of this century, which caused great repercussions in the world. To this end, Kellin of Scripps Oceanographic Research Institute established an observatory in 1958 at an altitude of 3,400 meters in the Maunaroya Mountains of Hawaii, and began the precise observation of atmospheric CO2 content. Because Hawaii is located in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean. Therefore, it can be considered that it is not affected by terrestrial air pollution and the observation results are reliable.

From April 1958 to June 1991, the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Maunaroya Mountains was observed. It was found that the atmospheric CO2 content in 1958 was only about 315 ppm, which reached 355 ppm in 1991. The seriousness of the problem also lies in the fact that only about half of the 5.5 billion tons of fossil fuels (about 4 tons of CO2 per ton) that humans burn annually (1996) enter the atmosphere and the rest are mainly absorbed by marine and terrestrial plants. Once the ocean is saturated with CO2, the atmospheric CO2 content will increase exponentially. In addition, they also found seasonal variations in CO2 content, with a difference of 6 ppm between winter and summer. This is mainly due to the winter drought and summer glory of vegetation on the vast continents of the Northern Hemisphere, that is, plants absorb CO2 in summer, which makes the atmospheric CO2 concentration relatively lower.

Includings

According to the determination of CO2 concentration in the air of sealed bubbles in the Antarctic and Greenland continental ice sheets, the CO2 content in the atmosphere has been relatively stable for a long time in the past, about 280 ppm. Only from the mid-18th century, before and after the Industrial Revolution began to rise steadily. That is to say, it took 240 years for human beings to increase the atmospheric CO2 concentration from 280 ppm to 355 ppm.

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2. Although its concentration in the atmosphere is much lower than CO2, its growth rate is much higher. According to the Second Climate Change Assessment Report issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1996, CO2 increased by 30% in 240 years from 1750 to 1990, while methane increased by 145% in the same period. Methane, also known as biogas, is produced when organic matter decays under anoxic conditions. For example, paddy fields, compost and animal manure all produce biogas. Nitrogen monoxide is also known as laughing gas, because inhaling a certain concentration of this gas can cause facial muscle spasm, which looks like laughing. It is mainly produced by burning fossil fuels and organisms using chemical fertilizers. Although the ozone content in the atmosphere decreases in the stratosphere, it increases in the troposphere, which will be discussed later. Freon gases are compounds of chlorine, fluorine and carbon; they do not exist in nature and are entirely human-made. Because of its low melting point and boiling point, non-flammable, non-explosive, odorless, harmless and excellent stability, it is widely used in the manufacture of refrigerants, foaming agents and cleaners. Although the highest concentrations of Freon 12 and 11 in the earth’s atmosphere are very few, their growth rates have been very high in the past, both of which are 5% per year. Because of its severe destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, its concentration in the atmosphere is expected to decrease gradually from the beginning of the 21st century according to the 1987 International Montreal Protocol.

It should be noted that although the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases other than CO2 is much lower than that of CO2, some of them are several orders of magnitude smaller, their greenhouse effect is much stronger than that of CO2. Therefore, their contribution to atmospheric greenhouse effect, according to the second IPCC Report, is only one order of magnitude lower than that of CO2. If their total contribution to the greenhouse effect of the Earth’s atmosphere is small compared with CO2 before 1960, it is not negligible that in the near future they will go hand in hand with CO2 and even exceed CO2.
April 2, 2018, DOE Labor

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Learn How To Compost


Ways to Make Composts

How to Compost

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The Method of Making Compost Fertilizer from Straw

  1. Method of composting:
  2. Site selection Fertilizer-making site should be located in the leeward sunward area with flat terrain and close to the water source, which can be made in the open air all the year round. A kind of
  3. Material preparation (Take 1 ton of dry straw as an example)

(1) 1000 kg of crop straw.

(2) 20 kg corn flour or wheat bran or rice bran, and 5-10 kg urea can be added if conditions permit.

(3) Bacillus Yikang compost fermentation strain 400g (two bags of this product).

Production method

(1) The length of straw (e.g. corn straw) should be 1-3 centimeters when it is crushed or cut by a hay cutter (wheat straw, rice straw, leaves, weeds, peanut seedlings, bean straw, etc.) can be fermented directly, but the fermentation effect is better after crushing.

(2) Water the crushed or cut straw with water to wet and permeate, and the moisture content of straw is generally controlled at about 60%.

(3) Mix 20 kilograms of corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) with 400 grams of bacteria. Sprinkle corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) mixed with bacteria evenly on the surface of straw irrigated with water by hand. Use spade and other tools to turn over and mix, stack into long strips of 2 meters wide, 1.5 meters high and unlimited length, and cover them tightly with plastic cloth.

Decay process

(1) Warming up stage: from room temperature to 45 C, generally only one day, at this time can turn over the stack.

(2) In the future, when the heap temperature reaches above 60 C, it needs to be turned over, and the basic state of decomposition can be reached in 15-20 days, and the fertilizer can be applied directly. Maturity mark straw turns brown or black-brown, soft and elastic when wet, brittle and fragile when dry.

Application Method

(1) Straw fertilizer is generally used as base fertilizer and can be applied wetly. Soil should be covered for topdressing. Semi-decomposed fertilizer is applied to crops with longer growth period, straw fertilizer with higher maturity is applied to crops such as melons, fruits and vegetables with shorter growth period, semi-decomposed fertilizer is used in sandy soil, and fertilizer with higher maturity is best applied to clay soil.

(2) Straw fertilizer is rich in organic matter, balanced nutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and contains various trace elements. It is a suitable fertilizer for all kinds of crops and soils. It has remarkable effects on improving crop quality and increasing yield. A kind of

Note: It is suggested that 20-30% livestock and poultry manure or other organic substances should be properly added in composting, so that the fertilizer efficiency is better and more comprehensive.

(3)Rapid Fermentation of Straw Returning to Field:

Quick Returning Technology: Digging Trough – Stacking Straw – Adding Bacteria and Yikang – Sealing

1) Digging trough: Digging a low trough 1.5-2 m wide and 0.3 m deep in idle fields such as fields and courtyards, the length of which can be determined according to the amount of straw. _

2) Stacking straw: According to the standard of 60% moisture content of straw (i.e. holding the water in groups and keeping the watermarking by hand without dripping, it is appropriate to lay down and disperse), so that the straw can absorb enough moisture and accumulate straw in the tank.

3) Adding organic fertilizer starter: first, add 1 bag (200g) of Bacteria Yikang to dilute 20 kg corn flour or rice bran or wheat bran (1000 kg straw material), then stack straw while adding animal manure or urea to adjust C/N ratio and evenly sprinkle corn flour with Bacteria Yikang. Or rice bran or wheat bran.

4) Sealing: When the pile is about 1:5 meters high, photograph it and seal it with clay or plastic film. About 15 days in summer and 40 days in winter can be fertilized and returned to the field.

 

Quick in-situ Returning Technology of Straw Returning to the Field: Straw Crushing-Adding Bacteria Yikang and Feces-Sealing-Tillage-Tillage

1) Straw crushing: The straw is crushed into small segments of about 3-4 cm with a crusher.

2) Add Bacteria Yikang: first, add 2 bags of Bacteria Yikang (400 grams) into 40 kg corn flour or rice bran, wheat bran dilution; decomposed feces and urine 300 kg; all kinds of straw 700 kg. Mix the above materials well, then add water, adjust the moisture content of straw to about 60%, accumulate in the earth and compact slightly. A kind of

3) Sealing: After accumulating the material, the material is sealed with mud. A kind of

4) Tillage: Sprinkle the rotten straw evenly on the ground, and immediately carry out deep tillage, raking and further maturation of the straw.

Rapid Decomposition and Return of Rice Straw to Field Technology Harvesting Fertilizing Adding Green Seedlings to Strengthen Throwing Seedlings

1) Harvesting: one is to keep high stubble harvested, tail grass left in the field, 100% straw returned to the field; the other is low stubble harvested, after threshing also returned to the field in full.

2) Fertilization: Planned application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the field.

3) Bacterial Yikang: According to 1000 kg of straw, add 500 grams of Bacterial Yikang, evenly sprinkle in the field. When applied, the water layer in the field was 2-3 cm.

4) Seedling throwing: After applying Bacillus Yikang, the farmland can be thrown for one day. When throwing rice seedlings, the surface of the field should maintain a certain water layer. The water layer of the high stubble paddy field and straw strip mulch is shallow, 2-3 cm. The paddy field covered with straw is deep, about 5 cm. Submerged straw is the standard to ensure the contact between seedling roots and water.

Technical Operating Points

1) Adequate moisture: straw must absorb enough water, the moisture content is generally controlled at about 60%. A kind of

2) Adjust the appropriate C/N: Add appropriate amount of animal manure or nitrogen fertilizer to regulate the C/N of the compost.

3) Blend material: Bacteria Yikang added should be evenly sprinkled in straw, or stirred evenly with utensils.

4) Ventilation: Microorganisms ferment faster under aerobic conditions, and the condition of ventilation will directly affect the stalk maturation rate. So don’t step on it when stacking, in order to facilitate ventilation. After stacking, it is sealed with mud mixed with straw. When the temperature in the stack exceeds 65 degrees, ventilation or dump should be adopted.

5) Sealing: When stacking, the surrounding and top of the reactor should be sealed to prevent water evaporation and nutrient loss.

6) Warming up: When composting straw in winter or cold area, plastic film is added to the compost to increase the temperature. Fourth, attention should be paid to the sufficient moisture content of materials for stacking and composting, the uniform mixing, sealing, heat preservation and water retention, so as to ensure that straw is quickly matured and accumulated without stepping on it, and take a slight photo.

Last, the suitable area, all kinds of straw crops can be treated by straw composting and returning technology after harvesting.

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