Category: Growing

What is Express

Express delivery, also known as express delivery or express delivery, refers to a new mode of transportation in which logistics enterprises (including freight forwarders) deliver documents or parcels entrusted by users quickly and safely from the sender’s door to the recipient’s door (hand delivery) through their own independent network or through joint venture cooperation (i.e. networking).
Express delivery can be divided into broad sense and narrow sense. In the broad sense, express delivery refers to the delivery of any goods (including bulk cargo); in the narrow sense, express delivery refers to the urgent delivery service of business documents and small pieces. The object of this textbook research and analysis is mainly the express industry in a narrow sense. According to the standard of service, express delivery generally refers to express delivery service completed within 48 hours. From the definition of express delivery, the following three characteristics of express delivery can be summarized:
From the economic category, express delivery is a branch of the logistics industry, and the research of express delivery belongs to the category of logistics.
From the perspective of business operation, express delivery is a new mode of transportation and an important link in the supply chain.
From the nature of operation, express delivery is a new service trade with high added value.

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Greenhouse Gases

Not every gas in the atmosphere absorbs intensely long-wave radiation from the ground. The greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere are called greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, freon and water vapor. They absorb almost all the long-wave radiation emitted from the ground, and only a very narrow region absorbs very little, so they are called “window region”. It is through this window that the earth returns 70% of the heat from the sun to the space in the form of long-wave radiation, thus maintaining the ground temperature unchanged. The greenhouse effect is mainly due to the increase in the number and variety of greenhouse gases by human activities, which makes the 70% value decrease and the remaining heat makes the earth warm.

What is greenhouse gas?

However, although CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a strong ability to absorb long-wave radiation from the ground, their amount in the atmosphere is very small. If the atmospheric state of pressure as a atmospheric pressure and temperature of 0 C is called the standard state, then the whole atmosphere of the earth is compressed to this standard state, its thickness is 8000 meters. At present, the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere is 355 ppm, or 355 parts per million. Converting it to the standard state, it will be 2.8 meters thick. This is 2.8 meters thick in the atmosphere of 8,000 meters thick. Methane content is 1.7 ppm, corresponding to 1.4 cm thick. The ozone concentration is 400 ppb (ppb is one thousandth of ppm), which is only 3 mm thick after conversion. Nitrous oxide is 310 ppb, 2.5 mm thick. There are many kinds of freon, but the most abundant Freon 12 in the atmosphere is only 400 ppt (ppt is one thousandth of ppb), converted to the standard state of only 3 microns. This shows that there are few greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also for this reason that human release without restrictions can easily lead to rapid global warming.

History of development

As early as 1938, British meteorologist Carlinda pointed out that CO2 concentration had risen by 6% since the beginning of the century after analyzing sporadic CO2 observations around the world at the end of the 19th century. He also found that there was a warming tendency in the world from the end of last century to the middle of this century, which caused great repercussions in the world. To this end, Kellin of Scripps Oceanographic Research Institute established an observatory in 1958 at an altitude of 3,400 meters in the Maunaroya Mountains of Hawaii, and began the precise observation of atmospheric CO2 content. Because Hawaii is located in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean. Therefore, it can be considered that it is not affected by terrestrial air pollution and the observation results are reliable.

From April 1958 to June 1991, the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Maunaroya Mountains was observed. It was found that the atmospheric CO2 content in 1958 was only about 315 ppm, which reached 355 ppm in 1991. The seriousness of the problem also lies in the fact that only about half of the 5.5 billion tons of fossil fuels (about 4 tons of CO2 per ton) that humans burn annually (1996) enter the atmosphere and the rest are mainly absorbed by marine and terrestrial plants. Once the ocean is saturated with CO2, the atmospheric CO2 content will increase exponentially. In addition, they also found seasonal variations in CO2 content, with a difference of 6 ppm between winter and summer. This is mainly due to the winter drought and summer glory of vegetation on the vast continents of the Northern Hemisphere, that is, plants absorb CO2 in summer, which makes the atmospheric CO2 concentration relatively lower.


According to the determination of CO2 concentration in the air of sealed bubbles in the Antarctic and Greenland continental ice sheets, the CO2 content in the atmosphere has been relatively stable for a long time in the past, about 280 ppm. Only from the mid-18th century, before and after the Industrial Revolution began to rise steadily. That is to say, it took 240 years for human beings to increase the atmospheric CO2 concentration from 280 ppm to 355 ppm.

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2. Although its concentration in the atmosphere is much lower than CO2, its growth rate is much higher. According to the Second Climate Change Assessment Report issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1996, CO2 increased by 30% in 240 years from 1750 to 1990, while methane increased by 145% in the same period. Methane, also known as biogas, is produced when organic matter decays under anoxic conditions. For example, paddy fields, compost and animal manure all produce biogas. Nitrogen monoxide is also known as laughing gas, because inhaling a certain concentration of this gas can cause facial muscle spasm, which looks like laughing. It is mainly produced by burning fossil fuels and organisms using chemical fertilizers. Although the ozone content in the atmosphere decreases in the stratosphere, it increases in the troposphere, which will be discussed later. Freon gases are compounds of chlorine, fluorine and carbon; they do not exist in nature and are entirely human-made. Because of its low melting point and boiling point, non-flammable, non-explosive, odorless, harmless and excellent stability, it is widely used in the manufacture of refrigerants, foaming agents and cleaners. Although the highest concentrations of Freon 12 and 11 in the earth’s atmosphere are very few, their growth rates have been very high in the past, both of which are 5% per year. Because of its severe destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, its concentration in the atmosphere is expected to decrease gradually from the beginning of the 21st century according to the 1987 International Montreal Protocol.

It should be noted that although the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases other than CO2 is much lower than that of CO2, some of them are several orders of magnitude smaller, their greenhouse effect is much stronger than that of CO2. Therefore, their contribution to atmospheric greenhouse effect, according to the second IPCC Report, is only one order of magnitude lower than that of CO2. If their total contribution to the greenhouse effect of the Earth’s atmosphere is small compared with CO2 before 1960, it is not negligible that in the near future they will go hand in hand with CO2 and even exceed CO2.
April 2, 2018, DOE Labor

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Earthworms, commonly known as earthworms, also known as Eel, are the representative animals of Oligochaeta in annelida. Earthworms are saprophytic living animals. They live in humid environment and feed on corrupt organic matter. They are full of a large number of microorganisms but seldom get sick. This is related to the unique number of antimicrobial immune systems in these earthworms.
In scientific classification, they belong to unidirectional earthworms. The body is cylindrical (distinct from the cylindrical shape of linear animals), symmetrical on both sides and segmented: it consists of more than 100 segments. After the Eleventh segment, there is a dorsal foramen in the middle of the back of each segment; there is no skeleton, it belongs to invertebrates, with bare body surface and no cuticle. Except for the first two segments of the body, all the other segments have bristles. Hermaphroditism, allogeneic fertilization, reproduction by the ring to produce cocoons, reproduction of the next generation. There are more than 2500 known earthworms. Darwin pointed out in 1881 that earthworms are the most important animal group in the world’s evolutionary history.

Physiological structure

Body wall and secondary body cavity

The body wall of earthworms consists of cuticle, epithelium, circular muscular layer, longitudinal muscular layer and coelomic epithelium. The outermost layer is a single layer of columnar epithelial cells whose secretions form cuticle. The membrane is very thin, consisting of collagen fibers and non-fibrous layers with small holes. Cylindrical epithelial cells were mixed with fine glands cells, divided into mucous cells and protein cells, can secrete mucus and make the body surface moist. Earthworms encounter intense stimulation. Mucous cells secrete a large amount of mucus to wrap the body into a mucous membrane, which has a protective effect. Epithelial cells have short basal cells at the base, and some people think that they can develop into columnar epithelial cells. Sensory cells aggregate to form sensory organs and disperse between epithelial cells. The nerve fibers of a thin layer of nerve tissue under the epithelium are connected at the base. In addition, there are photoreceptor cells, the base of epithelium, also connected with the nerve fibers below it.

The muscles of earthworms belong to the twill muscles, which generally account for about 40% of the body volume. They are well-developed and flexible. When the longitudinal muscular layer of some segments of the earthworm contracts and the circular muscular layer relaxes, the segment becomes thicker and shorter, and the retracted bristles born on the body wall obliquely extend into the surrounding soil; at this time, the circular muscular layer of the former segment contracts, the longitudinal muscular layer relaxes, the segment becomes thinner and longer, and the bristles retract, thus breaking away from the surrounding soil. The bristle support of the latter segment pushes the body forward. In this way, the contraction wave of muscles gradually passes forward and backward along the longitudinal axis of the body.

The coelomic compartment is separated by the septum according to the body segment, and each compartment is connected with a small hole. Each body chamber is formed by the development of left and right two body sacs. The medial part of the sac formed visceral membranes, while the dorsal and ventral parts formed dorsal and peritoneal mesenteries. In earthworms, the mesentery of the abdomen degenerates, only part between the intestine and the abdominal vessels exists, while the mesentery of the back disappears. The part between the anterior and posterior coelomic sacs is closely together, forming a septum. Some species have no septum in the esophagus.

Digestive system

The digestive tract runs longitudinally in the central part of the body cavity and passes through the septum. The muscular layer of the wall of the digestive tract is well developed, which can improve peristalsis and digestive function. The digestive tract is differentiated into mouth, mouth, throat, esophagus, sand sac, stomach, intestine and anus. The mouth can be turned out from the mouth to ingest food. The pharyngeal muscles are well developed, the muscles contract, and the pharyngeal cavity enlarges to support feeding. There is a single-cell pharyngeal gland outside the pharynx, which secretes mucus and proteinase, moisturizes food and has a preliminary digestive effect. After pharynx, there is a short and thin esophagus with esophageal glands on its wall. It can secrete calcium and neutralize acidic substances. The back of the esophagus is a muscular sand sac (gizzard), lined with a thick cutin membrane, which can grind food. From mouth to sand sac, the ectoderm is formed and belongs to foregut. The digestive tract behind the sand sac is rich in microvessels and glands, which is called stomach. There is a circle of gastric glands in front of the stomach, which functions like pharyngeal glands. The digestive tract enlarges to form the intestine, and its dorsal central fovea enters into a blind canal (typhlosole), which enlarges the area of digestion and absorption. Digestion and absorption are mainly performed in the intestine. The outermost visceral membranes of the intestinal wall specialize into yellow cells. Since the 26th body segment, a pair of conical cecum (caeca) extending forward from both sides of the intestine can secrete a variety of enzymes, which are important digestive glands. The stomach and intestine originate from the endoderm and belong to the midgut. The posterior intestine is relatively short, accounting for about 20 body segments in the posterior end of the digestive tract. It has no blind passage and no digestive function. Open to the body through the anus. The digestive system of earthworms consists of more developed digestive ducts and glands. The digestive ducts are composed of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, crop sac, sand sac, stomach, small intestine, cecum, rectum and anus.

Circulatory system

Earthworms are very special. Like their body segments without obvious merger, their hearts are also divided into several segments in the front of the body, generally 4-5, which are circular, like enlarged blood vessels, so they are also called circular blood vessels. The dorsal side of the annular heart is connected with the dorsal blood vessel from the back to the front, and the ventral side is connected with the abdominal blood vessel from the front to the back. The abdominal blood vessel and its branches are connected with the inferior nerve blood vessel from the front to the back. The annular heart has thicker muscular walls than blood vessels and pulsates. There are also valves that open unilaterally to ensure blood flow from the dorsal to the abdominal vessels. Generally speaking, the blood flow is powered by the pulsation of these independent annular hearts. The direction of blood flow is from back to front (in the dorsal vessels), from back to abdomen (in the annular heart), and from front to back (abdominal vessels and subnervous vessels).
Respiration and Excretion
The excretory organs of earthworms are posterior renal tubules. In general, each segment has a pair of typical posterior renal tubules.

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Bio Engine Composting

Bio Engine Composting

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Decomposition Technology of Raw Chicken Manure Composting

Can chicken manure be used as organic fertilizer if it is not ripe? Chinese style
Answer: No.
1. Not only chicken manure, but also human manure contains a lot of pathogens, eggs and parasites. Unripe manure can not be directly applied to crops.
2. Chicken manure will dissipate most of the heat in the process of ripening. If it is not fertilized directly, it will cause burning roots and seedlings of plants.
3. Nitrogen fertilizer in chicken manure originally existed in the form of protein. Plants could not use protein directly. Only when protein was decomposed into ammonia after fermentation, can they be used by plants.

How to decompose chicken manure?

Chicken manure must be fully decomposed before it is applied. The parasites and eggs in chicken manure, as well as some infectious pathogens, are inactivated through the decomposition process. Because chicken manure produces high temperature in the process of decomposition, it is easy to cause nitrogen loss. Therefore, it is better to add water and 5% calcium superphosphate before chicken manure is decomposed. Chicken manure has become a good base fertilizer for crop cultivation after full maturation. It can be used for all kinds of flowers, seedlings, crops and fruit trees.

The traditional method is to compost chicken manure for fermentation and maturation, which usually takes 3-4 months to mature. Nowadays, through the rapid biological decomposition technology of Nongshengle chicken manure, the decomposition rate can be 10-20 times faster than the traditional method by aerobic fermentation, and the protein and other substances of chicken manure can be converted into more easily absorbed elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After complete decomposition, chicken manure can hardly smell odor. Fermentation of chicken manure with Nongshengle Fecal Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation has the advantages of low dosage, good effect and fast speed. Generally, chicken manure can be completely decomposed in 7-15 days. If the fermentation material is pure chicken manure, under normal conditions, the C/N ratio is generally less than 20, it should be added with appropriate amount of straw, sawdust and other materials with high C/N ratio. Straw can be added as much as chicken manure to mediate the C/N ratio, and because compost fermentation is aerobic fermentation, straw can enhance the looseness and permeability of chicken manure, which is more conducive to fermentation.

Note: It is recommended to use rice, corn, wheat, sawdust and other plant straw with larger carbon and nitrogen content, and to avoid using straw with smaller carbon and nitrogen content, such as beans. Chinese style

Method of decomposition of chicken manure: Before fermentation, mix all kinds of materials evenly and reserve them. During fermentation, the manure starter of Nongshengle was diluted and mixed with chicken manure mixture at the ratio of 1:200. Then it could be accumulated and fermented. The fermentation process is dumped 1-2 times, and the decomposition can be completed in 7-15 days according to the season.
Knowledge of organic fertilizer clinker: The ratio of total carbon content to total nitrogen content in organic matter is called carbon-nitrogen ratio, and their ratio is called carbon-nitrogen ratio.

C/N ratio of common plants:

  • In general, the C/N ratios of gramineous crop stalks such as rice stalks, corn stalks and weeds are very high, reaching 60-100:1.
  • The C/N ratio of leguminous crop stalks is relatively small, such as the C/N ratio of general leguminous green manure is 15-20:1.

Effects of different C/N ratios on Composting

The decomposition and mineralization of organic matter with high C/N ratio is difficult or slow. The reason is that when microorganisms decompose organic matter, they need to assimilate about one part of nitrogen to form their own cell body when they assimilate five parts of carbon, because the carbon-nitrogen ratio of microorganisms is about 5:1. In order to assimilate (absorb and utilize) one portion of carbon, four portions of organic carbon are needed to obtain energy, so 25 portions of organic carbon are needed for microorganisms to absorb and utilize one portion of nitrogen. That is to say, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen of microorganism decomposition of organic matter is 25:1. If the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is too large, the decomposition of microorganisms will be slow and the available nitrogen in soil will be consumed. Therefore, when applying organic fertilizers (such as rice straw) with high C/N ratio or composting materials with high C/N ratio, more N-containing fertilizers should be added to regulate C/N ratio. On the contrary, there are too many nitrogen elements in chicken manure, so more carbon elements such as straw should be added. Chinese style

How to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent:

In order to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent, the manure fermentation strain (original strain) was developed and manufactured. Users could use the manure fermentation strain to cultivate the fermentation agent by themselves, which could reduce the cost by 10 times. Chinese style

Benefits of Feed Fermentation

  • Increase feed utilization rate and reduce feeding cost;
  • Detoxification and detoxification, improve palatability and intake;
  • Improving animal immunity and reducing fecal discharge;
  • Enhance meat quality and flavor to make meat delicious.
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Chess and card why most people love to play

9Chess and card health preservation method refers to a health preservation method that can relieve depression, transfer ideas, stimulate spirit, develop intelligence, enhance friendship, contact feelings and dispel loneliness through various kinds of chess and card entertainment activities. There are many kinds of chess and cards, such as chess, go, checkers, military chess, bridge, mahjong, poker and so on. Chess and card is a kind of game as well as a kind of competition. Most of them are easy to learn and appreciate both elegance and vulgarity. They are both interesting and skillful. They have obvious functions of mental health and fitness.

Health-preserving effect of chess and cards

Chess and cards are scientific, intellectual, competitive and interesting activities, which mainly focus on mental exercise. They can improve people’s memory and brain thinking ability, cultivate people’s good moral cultivation, close cooperation and team spirit adapted to the environment.

Exercise thinking and enlighten wisdom

Playing chess and cards can cultivate people’s ability to think independently, train their thinking and enlighten their wisdom. The two opposing sides dispatched troops and generals on an equal footing to compete in the battlefield. The final victory is less accidental. In this process, participants enhance logic and Dialectics by giving full play to their subjective initiative. Every step in the game is a process of judgment, reasoning, calculation and decision-making. For example, Weiqi, based on military dialectics, needs to be skillfully combined with computational ability, memorization ability, analytical ability, strategic and tactical skills, which can inspire people’s wisdom and help them to develop their intelligence, brain and mind.

Enhancing friendship and cultivating sentiment

Friends can enhance friendship and cultivate sentiment by playing chess or cards. The smooth flow of mood will delay people’s aging, which is also a major health-preserving effect of chess and cards. Taking chess as an example, besides intelligence and skill, it is also better than physical strength and endurance. It is a good way to cultivate one’s character. The popular proverb in chess circle is: game cultivation, prolong life. Ancient people also said that “the good gambler will live a long life”. There are many long-lived chess players in ancient and modern times. One hundred-year-old chess king Xie Xiaxun is a famous longevity star in the chess world; Gaolanquan in the late Ming Dynasty was over 90 years old; modern chess master Lin Yixian also lived to 93 years old.

Improving interpersonal skills

In playing chess and cards, there are many times that we need to have a strategic vision and the ability of overall coordination. These coordination abilities trained in confrontation are also very useful after leaving the chess game. It can lead to the coordination of interpersonal relationships and better adapt to the social environment.

Improve Personality and Assist Rehabilitation

Playing chess and cards can not only get spiritual pleasure, but also cultivate one’s self-cultivation, which is usually called chess and cards. They are also the epitome of human character, making people jump out of the circle of pure competition, emotional regulation, mental health, win or lose, and enter the ranks of elegant entertainment and morality. In some recreation halls set up by health care institutions, there are various kinds of chess specially for the recreation and fitness of the convalescents, so that chess can step out of the general recreational ranks and serve the health care, rehabilitation and improvement of personality.


Chess and card activities can exercise people’s thinking, improve intelligence and delay aging.
Enrich people’s spiritual life. Chess activities can not only delight the mind, but also cultivate the body. Concentration and devotion in playing chess and cards can play the role of breathing and vomiting in Qigong exercises, and help to improve memory. The benefits to people are not small. Especially for the elderly, because of their physiological reasons, the functions of viscera and organs are declining day by day, the essence of brain marrow and kidney is deficient, and the thinking, memory and intellectual response are not as good as before. If we can play chess and cards regularly and promote the continuous use of brain thinking intelligence, it will be very helpful to delay aging and prevent the degeneration of brain function.

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