Category: Safety Nets
Housing provident fund refers to the long-term housing savings deposited by state organs and institutions, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns, other urban enterprises and institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their working staff on an equal basis.
In 2011, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction is jointly working with various departments to study and revise the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund, and to liberalize the provisions on individual withdrawal of provident fund for housing rent payment. In 2013, some cities introduced measures to allow workers suffering from major diseases or their immediate relatives to withdraw provident fund for emergency relief.
In 2014, the three departments issued a document to cancel the housing provident fund personal housing loan insurance, notarization, new housing evaluation and compulsory institutional guarantee and other fee items, so as to alleviate the burden of loan workers.
In 2015, the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund (revised draft for examination) intends to stipulate that the deposit ratio of workers and units of housing provident fund shall not be less than 5% or more than 12%. From February 21, 2016, the interest rate of employees’housing provident fund account deposits has been adjusted to the benchmark interest rate of one-year fixed deposits. The interest rate after the increase is 1.50%.
From July 1, 2017, all the national housing provident fund management centers will handle the transfer and continuation of housing provident fund in different places through the platform according to the requirements of the “Operation Rules for the Transfer and Continuation of National Housing Provident Fund in different places” issued by the Ministry of Housing and Construction. All national housing provident fund management centers will “network” through a unified platform for the transfer of housing provident fund business in different places. According to incomplete statistics, more than 20 cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Fuzhou and Guangzhou, have access to the transfer platform of the National Housing Provident Fund. On May 15, 2018, the Beijing Housing Provident Fund Management Center issued the Notice on the Cancellation of Copies of Identity Certificates as Requirements for the Collection of Housing Provident Fund and the Processing of Loan Business.
Housing accumulation fund refers to the long-term housing reserve deposited by state organs, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns and other urban enterprises, institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their employees.
The definition of housing provident fund includes the following five aspects:
(1) Housing provident fund is only established in cities and towns, but not in rural areas.
(2) Only on-the-job workers can establish the housing provident fund system. Urban residents without jobs and retired workers do not implement the housing accumulation fund system.
(3) Housing provident fund consists of two parts, one part is deposited by the unit where the staff and workers work, the other part is deposited by the individual staff and workers. The personal deposit of employees shall be withheld by the unit and deposited into the individual account of housing accumulation fund together with the deposit of the unit.
(4) The long-term nature of housing provident fund deposit. Once the housing provident fund system has been established, the staff and workers must pay in accordance with the regulations uninterruptedly during their working period. Except for the retirement of the staff and workers or other circumstances stipulated in the Regulations on the Administration of the Housing Provident Fund, they may not suspend or interrupt it. It embodies the stability, unity, standardization and mandatory of housing provident fund.
(5) Housing provident fund is the personal housing reserve fund which is specially used for housing consumption expenditure stored by workers according to regulations. It has two characteristics:
First, the accumulation, that is, housing provident fund is not an integral part of workers’wages, not in the form of cash, and must be deposited in the housing provident fund management center in the entrusted bank to open a special account management.
Second, the special purpose of housing provident fund, the storage period can only be used for purchasing, building, overhauling self-housing, or paying rent. Employees can withdraw the housing provident fund in their accounts only when they retire, die, lose their working ability completely and terminate their labor relations with the unit or move out of their original residence city.
According to China’s regulations, enterprises should deposit housing provident fund for employees, regardless of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises.
The part of housing provident fund paid by enterprises and institutions does not belong to the attributes of total wages, but belongs to the expenditure of the nature of enterprise cost and expense. According to the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Deduction of Enterprise Wages and Salaries and Workers’Welfare Expenses (State Tax Letter 3), the term “total salaries and salaries” referred to in Articles 40, 41 and 42 of the Implementation Regulations of the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China refers to enterprises in accordance with document No. 3 of the State Tax Letter  Article 1 stipulates the total wages and salaries actually paid, excluding the social insurance premiums and housing provident fund such as the employee welfare premiums, the employee education funds, the trade union funds, the old-age insurance premiums, medical insurance premiums, unemployment insurance premiums, industrial injury insurance premiums and maternity insurance premiums borne by enterprises.
(1) Guarantee, the establishment of the staff housing accumulation fund system, for the staff to solve housing problems faster and better provide security;
(2) Mutual assistance, the establishment of housing provident fund system can effectively establish and form a mechanism and channels for housing workers to help workers without housing, and housing provident fund in terms of funds to help workers without housing, reflecting the mutual assistance of housing provident fund for workers;
(3) For a long period of time, every working worker in a town must pay the individual housing accumulation fund from the date of taking part in the work to the time of retirement or termination of labor relations; the unit where the worker works should also pay the housing accumulation fund for the worker’s subsidy according to the regulations.
(1) Generality, urban employees, regardless of the nature of their work units, family income and whether they have housing, must deposit housing accumulation fund in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations;
(2) Compulsory (policy nature). If a unit fails to register the deposit of the housing accumulation fund or to set up an account of the housing accumulation fund for its employees, the management center of the housing accumulation fund has the power to order it to do so within a time limit. If it fails to do so within the time limit, it may be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Regulations and may apply to the people’s court. Enforcement;
(3) Welfare, apart from the housing provident fund deposited by employees, units should also pay a certain amount of money for employees, and the interest rate of housing provident fund loans is lower than that of commercial loans;
(4) Returnability, the retirement of employees, or the complete loss of labor capacity and termination of labor relations with the unit, the removal of household registration or outbound settlement, etc., the housing provident fund deposited will be returned to the individual employees.
It refers to the state in which personal casualties or property losses can be controlled at an acceptable level in the course of traffic activities. Traffic safety means that the possibility of loss to people or things is acceptable; if this possibility exceeds the acceptable level, it is unsafe. As a dynamic open system, the safety of road traffic system is not only restricted by internal factors of the system, but also disturbed by external environment of the system. It is closely related to human, vehicle and road environment. Any unreliable, unbalanced and unstable factors in the system may lead to conflicts and contradictions, resulting in unsafe factors or unsafe states.
(1) Traffic safety is a state under certain dangerous conditions, and it is not absolutely free from traffic accidents.
(2) Traffic safety is not an instantaneous result, but a description of the process or state of the traffic system in a certain period or stage.
(3) Traffic safety is relative and absolute traffic safety does not exist.
(4) For different periods and regions, the acceptable level of loss is different, so the criteria for measuring the safety of the transportation system are different.
Raising the level of road traffic safety is a matter of great benefit to the country and the people. Many experts and scholars have carried out extensive and in-depth research in this area. Traffic accident prevention is one of the main tasks of traffic safety and an important part of traffic engineering research. From the point of view of traffic engineering, it is considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from three aspects: laws and regulations, education and engineering, and from the point of view of people, vehicles, roads and environment, which constitute the four elements of road traffic, it is also considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from these four elements.
Improving Transportation Legal System
Strengthening the construction of road traffic safety laws and regulations system is a direct and effective measure to improve the overall level of road traffic safety. At present, the content of our country’s road traffic safety regulation system has been covered in a number of different laws, regulations and other traffic management normative documents, and it plays an active and important role in our country’s road traffic operation practice. With the development of the times, the legal system should be amended and adjusted accordingly.
Strengthen Traffic Safety Education
(1) Carry out traffic safety propaganda
Traffic safety propaganda is an important way to publicize and educate the masses. In carrying out propaganda activities, we should attach importance to achieving practical results and link traffic safety with everyone’s vital interests so as to arouse people’s attention to traffic safety. We should adopt propaganda forms popular with the masses, incorporate them in people’s daily work and life, and in cultural entertainment. At the same time, propaganda activities must mobilize the strength of society to the greatest extent possible, and strive for the depth and breadth of propaganda to ensure the quality of propaganda.
(2) Strengthen traffic safety education
Traffic safety education, like other cultural knowledge, should be carried out systematically from the early childhood. Before high school, every stage of education was listed as a compulsory course, which enabled students to establish the concept of traffic legal system, traffic safety, traffic ethics and safety prevailing concepts from the beginning of education. To educate the society, we should adopt different ways and methods according to different objects, and carry out targeted education.
Improve vehicle safety performance and maintain good vehicle condition
To improve the safety performance of vehicles, we should take active safety measures and passive safety measures.
(1) Active safety measures
1) Improve side and front vision, install reversing lights and alarms to prevent traffic accidents caused by blind areas.
2) Improve the perspective performance of windowpanes to prevent traffic accidents caused by rain, snow and frost.
3) Take anti-glare measures to improve the illumination of headlamp in order to prevent traffic accidents caused by glare and insufficient illumination of headlamp.
4) In terms of power performance, the overtaking acceleration capability should be improved and the drive anti-skid system (TCS) should be installed.
5) In the aspect of stability, we should improve the stability and portability of operation, such as installing electronic stabilization program (ESP).
6) In braking aspect, the auxiliary braking system, ABS anti-lock braking system, retarder and braking system fault alarm system are installed to improve the anti-skid performance of tires, so as to ensure safety.
7) In terms of accident prevention measures, we should also improve the recognition performance of vehicles, including rear, signs and driving directions, in order to prevent accidents.
8) Active anti-collision warning system is adopted. When the vehicle encounters danger, the driver can be reminded in time. If the driver fails to take measures in time because of his errors, the system can automatically take measures to avoid danger (such as deceleration, bypass, etc.).
(2) Passive safety measures
1) In-car measures
In-car measures mainly include increasing occupant space as much as possible, i.e. the strength of the car body, in order to reduce the deformation of the collision, using toughened glass or partition glass to reduce the injury of the occupant caused by the accident, enlarging the area of the steering wheel to make it elastic, and making the switches, knobs and handles inside the car as round as possible. Sliding and soft; door and roof have enough strength to protect the safety of passengers and facilitate rescue. In addition, fire prevention performance, safety belt and airbag play an important role in occupant safety protection.
2) Outside measures
Extravehicular measures mainly refer to minimizing injuries when crashing bicycles and pedestrians, such as bumpers should be as smooth and flexible as possible, movable rearview mirrors and fenders, and protective nets connected with trailers, etc., which will have certain effects on the protection of the weak traffic.
Strengthen the Construction of Road and Traffic Safety Facilities
(1) Improving road conditions
Considering from the aspect of road alignment design, we should strictly follow the horizontal and vertical curves of the designed road to make the curves and ramps conform to the technical standards of highway engineering. The safety of various alignment combinations should be fully considered.
(2) Improving road safety facilities
Road safety facilities mainly include partition belts, safety fences, traffic signs, markings, sight guidance facilities and anti-glare facilities. For urban traffic, pedestrian overpasses, underground passages, traffic safety islands, etc.
(3) Implementing traffic control
Traffic control can be divided into traffic signal control and traffic regulation control. Traffic signal control refers to the establishment of traffic lights at road entrances and intersections to reasonably control the driving of vehicles. Traffic regulation control includes setting up one-way traffic section, turning lane, bus lane, etc.
(4) Establishment of Traffic Information System
Traffic information is also known as traffic information. In order to ensure the safety and rapidity of vehicles traveling on automobile lanes or urban trunk roads, public security and management departments should report traffic congestion, weather, road ahead or temporary traffic control to drivers in time so that drivers can change their countermeasures in time.
(5) Establishing Emergency Rescue System for Accidents
The monitoring and forecasting system estimates possible accident areas according to abnormal weather conditions, adopts information collection and liaison system, and assigns special personnel to monitor and make preparations. When an accident occurs, advanced communication equipment and means should be used to quickly and reliably contact the relevant departments to deal with the accident in a timely and effective manner so as to ensure road safety and smoothness.
(6) Improving the Road Traffic Environment
The improvement of road traffic environment mainly includes two aspects: on the one hand, improving road environment, making drivers have good driving sight distance and constantly changing visual effect, improving the monotonous environment which makes drivers tired and irritable; on the other hand, improving traffic flow environment, keeping good density as far as possible, and avoiding as possible. No mixed traffic flow.