Category: Governanace & Policy
Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
Taking the water system as a whole, according to the geographical distribution of towns and industrial and mining enterprises along the coast of the water system, as well as the self-purification capacity, pollution capacity and pollution status of the water system, comprehensive prevention and control measures are taken to prevent and control water pollution. It includes various engineering technology means and management measures, which have the characteristics of integrity, comprehensiveness and regionality.
Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution is a comprehensive application of various measures to prevent and control water pollution. Prevention and control measures involve two types of engineering and non-engineering, mainly:
(1) Reducing the discharge of wastewater and pollutants, including saving production wastewater, stipulating water quota, improving production technology and management system, increasing the reuse rate of wastewater, adopting new technology without pollution or less pollution, and formulating material quota, etc. For water-deficient cities and industrial and mining areas, regional recycling water and wastewater reuse systems should be developed.
(2) Developing regional water pollution prevention and control systems, including formulating urban water pollution prevention and control plans, river basin water pollution prevention and control management plans, implementing the total amount control system of water pollutant discharge, developing sewage after proper manual treatment for irrigation farmland and reuse for industry, establishing sewage reservoirs without polluting groundwater, and low water. Periodic storage of sewage reduces sewage discharge load and conducts controlled dilution during flood period.
(3) Develop wastewater treatment technologies with high efficiency and low energy consumption to treat wastewater.
Comprehensive prevention and control of pollution refers to the comprehensive use of various measures to prevent and control water environmental pollution from the whole point of view. It is very necessary to implement comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution, because China is a country with relatively scarce water resources, and there are two manifestations: one is resource-based water shortage, the other is water-quality-based water shortage. For a long time, the purification treatment of sewage outlet based on point source control can not effectively solve the problem of water pollution. Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution must be carried out from the overall point of view of the region and water system in order to fundamentally control water pollution and solve the problem of water shortage caused by water quality.
Why do this
The necessity and urgency of comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution are embodied in two aspects: first, the contradiction between water resources shortage and unbalanced supply and demand is prominent, and the serious pollution of water environment makes this contradiction more prominent and urgently needs to be solved;
Why is it so urgent?
Secondly, the purification treatment of sewage outlets based on point source control can not effectively solve the problem of water pollution. Comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution must be carried out from the whole region or water system, and the tail control of point source control should be transferred to the source control in order to control water pollution fundamentally.
The basic principle of sewage prevention and control is the combination of prevention, treatment and management.
Through effective control and preventive measures, the amount of pollutants discharged by pollution sources can be reduced to the minimum.
(1) For industrial pollution sources, the most effective control method is to promote cleaner production. Cleaner production refers to the advanced production technology with the smallest utilization of resources and energy and the least pollution emission. The main technical routes adopted in cleaner production include: reforming raw material selection and product design, replacing toxic and harmful raw materials and products with non-toxic and harmless raw materials and products; reforming production process to reduce consumption of raw materials, water and energy; adopting recycling water system to reduce wastewater discharge; and recycling the usefulness of wastewater. Composition, reduce the concentration of wastewater, etc. Cleaner production advocates life cycle analysis and management of products rather than end-treatment.
(2) For domestic pollution sources, effective measures can be taken to reduce their emissions. Such as promoting the use of water-saving appliances, improving people’s awareness of water-saving, reducing water consumption, thereby reducing domestic sewage discharge.
(3) For agricultural pollution sources, in order to effectively control non-point pollution sources, we must start from “prevention”. Promoting scientific fertilization and rational use of pesticides in farmland can greatly reduce the residual fertilizers and pesticides in farmland, thereby reducing the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides contained in farmland runoff.
Through various measures to control pollution sources and polluted water bodies, the pollution sources can achieve “standard discharge” and the water environment can achieve the corresponding water quality function.
It is very difficult or almost impossible for pollution sources to achieve zero discharge. Therefore, it is necessary to properly treat polluted (waste) water to ensure that the discharge standards set by the state or local authorities are met before it is discharged into the water body. Great attention should be paid to the relationship between industrial wastewater treatment and municipal wastewater treatment. For industrial wastewater containing acid, alkali, toxic and harmful substances, heavy metals or other special pollutants, local treatment should be carried out in the plant to meet the discharge standards to the water body or the water quality standards to the urban sewer. Those industrial wastewater similar in nature to municipal domestic sewage can be treated together with municipal sewage as a priority. It is not only unnecessary but also uneconomical to set up sewage treatment facilities separately. The design of urban sewage collection system and treatment plant should not only consider the need of water pollution prevention, but also the need to alleviate the contradiction of water resources. In areas where water resources are scarce, the treated municipal wastewater can be reused for agriculture, industry or municipal administration and become stable water resources. In order to meet the needs of wastewater reuse, its collection system and treatment plant should not be too centralized, but should be close to the reuse target.
In addition, according to the characteristics of water pollution, we should actively take physical, chemical, biological engineering and other means to control pollution, so that the deteriorated aquatic ecosystem can be gradually restored.
Strengthen the supervision and management of pollution sources, water bodies and water treatment facilities in order to promote treatment. Pipe also plays an important role in water pollution control. Scientific management includes regular monitoring and inspection of pollution sources, water treatment facilities and sewage treatment plants, and regular monitoring of water environmental quality to provide basis and information for environmental management.
Functional zoning of water environment is the basis for comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution
According to the current functions of water environment and the needs of economic and social development, the functional zoning of water environment is based on surface water environmental quality standards, which is the basis of water source protection and water pollution control. For example, the surface water environmental quality standard divides the water area control functions into five categories: Class I is mainly applicable to source water and national nature reserves; Class II is mainly applicable to primary protection areas of centralized drinking water sources, precious fish protection areas, fish and shrimp spawning grounds; Class III is mainly applicable to centralized drinking water sources II. Class IV is mainly suitable for general industrial water use and recreational water areas where human body does not contact directly; Class V is mainly suitable for agricultural water use areas and waters where general landscape requires.
Principles and methods
The principles of division are as follows: priority protection of centralized drinking water source areas; water body should not reduce its current use function, taking into account planning function; water areas with multiple functions should be classified according to the highest function; professional water standard requirements should be considered as a whole; consideration should be given to each other between upstream and downstream areas, with due consideration to potential functional requirements; and rational use of water body itself. Net capacity and environmental capacity; Consider the combination of land industrial rational layout; Consider the impact on underground drinking water sources; Practical and feasible, easy to manage.
Functional zoning method: according to the principle of adapting measures to local conditions and seeking truth from facts, according to actual measurement, empirical analysis and administrative decision-making.
Controlling pollution and protecting water sources according to functional areas.
(i) The level of protection shall be defined according to the functions of the waters and the requirements for water pollution control shall be put forward. For example, special protected waters refer to the first and second categories of national Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB3838-2002). No new sewage outlets shall be built for such waters. Existing sewage discharge units shall be strictly controlled by local environmental departments in order to ensure that the water quality of accepted waters meets the water quality standards for specified purposes; and key protected waters shall be protected. It refers to the third class waters stipulated by GB3838-2002, and the first class discharge standards stipulated in the Comprehensive Sewage Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) are applied to the sewage discharged into the waters.
(ii) The total amount control shall be implemented according to the functional areas. The so-called total amount control refers to the maximum allowable emission of some kind of pollution in order to maintain the environmental target value of an environmental functional area. Therefore, water environmental functional zoning is the basis for implementing total water pollution control.
Formulating comprehensive prevention and control plan of water pollution
Main contents and working steps
(i) Based on the investigation and evaluation of water environment, the main problems of water environment are analyzed and determined.
(ii) Division of water pollution control units. According to the analysis conclusion of water environment problems, considering the administrative division, water area characteristics and pollution source distribution characteristics, the source area and receiving water area are divided into water pollution control units.
(iii) Put forward environmental objectives and demonstrate accessibility. At the Fourth Session of the National People’s Congress, the strategic goal of environmental protection across the century was clearly put forward, which is the basis for the goal of comprehensive prevention and control of water pollution. Environmental objectives should include the total amount control objectives of major pollutants and the specific objectives of various sub-items of comprehensive water environment improvement. It is necessary to demonstrate the accessibility of environmental objectives.
(iv) Determine the amount of major pollutant reduction and the proportion of reduction allocation.
(v) To formulate a comprehensive water pollution prevention and control plan and implementation plan.
(vi) Support and guarantee for the implementation of the plan. Including: analysis of sources of funds, formulation of annual plans, implementation of pollutant discharge declaration and registration and pollutant discharge permit system proposals, as well as the necessary technical support.
Several principles that must be adhered to in formulating comprehensive water pollution prevention and control plan
(i) Focusing on economic construction is conducive to the coordinated development of economy and environment.
(ii) Take rational development and utilization of water resources as the core, focusing on the whole process control. By changing the mode of economic growth and promoting cleaner production, pollution can be eliminated in the process of economic reproduction.
(iii) Overall planning, highlighting key points, adapting measures to local conditions and stressing practical results.
(iv) adhering to the principle of comprehensive improvement. Systematic analysis of the planning scheme is needed to achieve overall optimization.
Emission permit system, transition from concentration control to total quantity control
Practice has proved that in carrying out this system, we must follow the following five requirements in the light of China’s current technological level and management system.
(1) Determine the total amount control target from the actual point of view. When it is difficult to determine the environmental capacity of the receiving water body for discharging pollutants, according to the principle of the total amount control plan put forward by the State Environmental Protection Administration in December 1995, the total amount of discharged major water pollutants in 1995 can be regarded as the target total amount, and the proportion of reduction can be determined according to the actual technical and economic level of the region, and allocated to the main body. Pollution sources.
(2) Choose the target of issuing certificates. The main target of issuing permits is the large polluters in the region. A city can catch more than a dozen or dozens of households. It is necessary to select the key control points through investigation and evaluation of pollution sources. For example, Anyang City put forward that we should do a good job of 2, 5 and 8, and control 8 and 9, that is, we should catch 20, 50 and 80 large polluters in batches, and control 70%, 80% and 90% of the city’s water pollution load.
- Control the total amount of sewage. Measure according to local conditions and control the total amount of sewage.
- Strengthen environmental supervision and management after issuance of certificates.
- Pay attention to practical experience and constantly improve the level. In order to implement the sewage discharge permit system, we should first carry out pilot projects, sum up experience and gradually popularize it.
- But we should also pay attention to the new problems in the process of implementation, such as the paid transfer of pollutant discharge indicators and the trading of pollutant discharge rights.
- Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Water Pollution in Township Enterprises
- The discharge of industrial wastewater from township enterprises was only 3.9 billion tons in 1997.
Housing Provident Fund
Housing provident fund refers to the long-term housing savings deposited by state organs and institutions, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns, other urban enterprises and institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their working staff on an equal basis.
In 2011, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction is jointly working with various departments to study and revise the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund, and to liberalize the provisions on individual withdrawal of provident fund for housing rent payment. In 2013, some cities introduced measures to allow workers suffering from major diseases or their immediate relatives to withdraw provident fund for emergency relief.
In 2014, the three departments issued a document to cancel the housing provident fund personal housing loan insurance, notarization, new housing evaluation and compulsory institutional guarantee and other fee items, so as to alleviate the burden of loan workers.
In 2015, the Regulations on the Management of Housing Provident Fund (revised draft for examination) intends to stipulate that the deposit ratio of workers and units of housing provident fund shall not be less than 5% or more than 12%. From February 21, 2016, the interest rate of employees’housing provident fund account deposits has been adjusted to the benchmark interest rate of one-year fixed deposits. The interest rate after the increase is 1.50%.
From July 1, 2017, all the national housing provident fund management centers will handle the transfer and continuation of housing provident fund in different places through the platform according to the requirements of the “Operation Rules for the Transfer and Continuation of National Housing Provident Fund in different places” issued by the Ministry of Housing and Construction. All national housing provident fund management centers will “network” through a unified platform for the transfer of housing provident fund business in different places. According to incomplete statistics, more than 20 cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Fuzhou and Guangzhou, have access to the transfer platform of the National Housing Provident Fund. On May 15, 2018, the Beijing Housing Provident Fund Management Center issued the Notice on the Cancellation of Copies of Identity Certificates as Requirements for the Collection of Housing Provident Fund and the Processing of Loan Business.
Housing accumulation fund refers to the long-term housing reserve deposited by state organs, state-owned enterprises, urban collective enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises, private enterprises in cities and towns and other urban enterprises, institutions, private non-enterprise units, social organizations and their employees.
The definition of housing provident fund includes the following five aspects:
(1) Housing provident fund is only established in cities and towns, but not in rural areas.
(2) Only on-the-job workers can establish the housing provident fund system. Urban residents without jobs and retired workers do not implement the housing accumulation fund system.
(3) Housing provident fund consists of two parts, one part is deposited by the unit where the staff and workers work, the other part is deposited by the individual staff and workers. The personal deposit of employees shall be withheld by the unit and deposited into the individual account of housing accumulation fund together with the deposit of the unit.
(4) The long-term nature of housing provident fund deposit. Once the housing provident fund system has been established, the staff and workers must pay in accordance with the regulations uninterruptedly during their working period. Except for the retirement of the staff and workers or other circumstances stipulated in the Regulations on the Administration of the Housing Provident Fund, they may not suspend or interrupt it. It embodies the stability, unity, standardization and mandatory of housing provident fund.
(5) Housing provident fund is the personal housing reserve fund which is specially used for housing consumption expenditure stored by workers according to regulations. It has two characteristics:
First, the accumulation, that is, housing provident fund is not an integral part of workers’wages, not in the form of cash, and must be deposited in the housing provident fund management center in the entrusted bank to open a special account management.
Second, the special purpose of housing provident fund, the storage period can only be used for purchasing, building, overhauling self-housing, or paying rent. Employees can withdraw the housing provident fund in their accounts only when they retire, die, lose their working ability completely and terminate their labor relations with the unit or move out of their original residence city.
According to China’s regulations, enterprises should deposit housing provident fund for employees, regardless of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises.
The part of housing provident fund paid by enterprises and institutions does not belong to the attributes of total wages, but belongs to the expenditure of the nature of enterprise cost and expense. According to the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Deduction of Enterprise Wages and Salaries and Workers’Welfare Expenses (State Tax Letter 3), the term “total salaries and salaries” referred to in Articles 40, 41 and 42 of the Implementation Regulations of the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China refers to enterprises in accordance with document No. 3 of the State Tax Letter  Article 1 stipulates the total wages and salaries actually paid, excluding the social insurance premiums and housing provident fund such as the employee welfare premiums, the employee education funds, the trade union funds, the old-age insurance premiums, medical insurance premiums, unemployment insurance premiums, industrial injury insurance premiums and maternity insurance premiums borne by enterprises.
(1) Guarantee, the establishment of the staff housing accumulation fund system, for the staff to solve housing problems faster and better provide security;
(2) Mutual assistance, the establishment of housing provident fund system can effectively establish and form a mechanism and channels for housing workers to help workers without housing, and housing provident fund in terms of funds to help workers without housing, reflecting the mutual assistance of housing provident fund for workers;
(3) For a long period of time, every working worker in a town must pay the individual housing accumulation fund from the date of taking part in the work to the time of retirement or termination of labor relations; the unit where the worker works should also pay the housing accumulation fund for the worker’s subsidy according to the regulations.
(1) Generality, urban employees, regardless of the nature of their work units, family income and whether they have housing, must deposit housing accumulation fund in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations;
(2) Compulsory (policy nature). If a unit fails to register the deposit of the housing accumulation fund or to set up an account of the housing accumulation fund for its employees, the management center of the housing accumulation fund has the power to order it to do so within a time limit. If it fails to do so within the time limit, it may be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Regulations and may apply to the people’s court. Enforcement;
(3) Welfare, apart from the housing provident fund deposited by employees, units should also pay a certain amount of money for employees, and the interest rate of housing provident fund loans is lower than that of commercial loans;
(4) Returnability, the retirement of employees, or the complete loss of labor capacity and termination of labor relations with the unit, the removal of household registration or outbound settlement, etc., the housing provident fund deposited will be returned to the individual employees.
Road Traffic Safety
It refers to the state in which personal casualties or property losses can be controlled at an acceptable level in the course of traffic activities. Traffic safety means that the possibility of loss to people or things is acceptable; if this possibility exceeds the acceptable level, it is unsafe. As a dynamic open system, the safety of road traffic system is not only restricted by internal factors of the system, but also disturbed by external environment of the system. It is closely related to human, vehicle and road environment. Any unreliable, unbalanced and unstable factors in the system may lead to conflicts and contradictions, resulting in unsafe factors or unsafe states.
(1) Traffic safety is a state under certain dangerous conditions, and it is not absolutely free from traffic accidents.
(2) Traffic safety is not an instantaneous result, but a description of the process or state of the traffic system in a certain period or stage.
(3) Traffic safety is relative and absolute traffic safety does not exist.
(4) For different periods and regions, the acceptable level of loss is different, so the criteria for measuring the safety of the transportation system are different.
Raising the level of road traffic safety is a matter of great benefit to the country and the people. Many experts and scholars have carried out extensive and in-depth research in this area. Traffic accident prevention is one of the main tasks of traffic safety and an important part of traffic engineering research. From the point of view of traffic engineering, it is considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from three aspects: laws and regulations, education and engineering, and from the point of view of people, vehicles, roads and environment, which constitute the four elements of road traffic, it is also considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from these four elements.
Improving Transportation Legal System
Strengthening the construction of road traffic safety laws and regulations system is a direct and effective measure to improve the overall level of road traffic safety. At present, the content of our country’s road traffic safety regulation system has been covered in a number of different laws, regulations and other traffic management normative documents, and it plays an active and important role in our country’s road traffic operation practice. With the development of the times, the legal system should be amended and adjusted accordingly.
Strengthen Traffic Safety Education
(1) Carry out traffic safety propaganda
Traffic safety propaganda is an important way to publicize and educate the masses. In carrying out propaganda activities, we should attach importance to achieving practical results and link traffic safety with everyone’s vital interests so as to arouse people’s attention to traffic safety. We should adopt propaganda forms popular with the masses, incorporate them in people’s daily work and life, and in cultural entertainment. At the same time, propaganda activities must mobilize the strength of society to the greatest extent possible, and strive for the depth and breadth of propaganda to ensure the quality of propaganda.
(2) Strengthen traffic safety education
Traffic safety education, like other cultural knowledge, should be carried out systematically from the early childhood. Before high school, every stage of education was listed as a compulsory course, which enabled students to establish the concept of traffic legal system, traffic safety, traffic ethics and safety prevailing concepts from the beginning of education. To educate the society, we should adopt different ways and methods according to different objects, and carry out targeted education.
Improve vehicle safety performance and maintain good vehicle condition
To improve the safety performance of vehicles, we should take active safety measures and passive safety measures.
(1) Active safety measures
1) Improve side and front vision, install reversing lights and alarms to prevent traffic accidents caused by blind areas.
2) Improve the perspective performance of windowpanes to prevent traffic accidents caused by rain, snow and frost.
3) Take anti-glare measures to improve the illumination of headlamp in order to prevent traffic accidents caused by glare and insufficient illumination of headlamp.
4) In terms of power performance, the overtaking acceleration capability should be improved and the drive anti-skid system (TCS) should be installed.
5) In the aspect of stability, we should improve the stability and portability of operation, such as installing electronic stabilization program (ESP).
6) In braking aspect, the auxiliary braking system, ABS anti-lock braking system, retarder and braking system fault alarm system are installed to improve the anti-skid performance of tires, so as to ensure safety.
7) In terms of accident prevention measures, we should also improve the recognition performance of vehicles, including rear, signs and driving directions, in order to prevent accidents.
8) Active anti-collision warning system is adopted. When the vehicle encounters danger, the driver can be reminded in time. If the driver fails to take measures in time because of his errors, the system can automatically take measures to avoid danger (such as deceleration, bypass, etc.).
(2) Passive safety measures
1) In-car measures
In-car measures mainly include increasing occupant space as much as possible, i.e. the strength of the car body, in order to reduce the deformation of the collision, using toughened glass or partition glass to reduce the injury of the occupant caused by the accident, enlarging the area of the steering wheel to make it elastic, and making the switches, knobs and handles inside the car as round as possible. Sliding and soft; door and roof have enough strength to protect the safety of passengers and facilitate rescue. In addition, fire prevention performance, safety belt and airbag play an important role in occupant safety protection.
2) Outside measures
Extravehicular measures mainly refer to minimizing injuries when crashing bicycles and pedestrians, such as bumpers should be as smooth and flexible as possible, movable rearview mirrors and fenders, and protective nets connected with trailers, etc., which will have certain effects on the protection of the weak traffic.
Strengthen the Construction of Road and Traffic Safety Facilities
(1) Improving road conditions
Considering from the aspect of road alignment design, we should strictly follow the horizontal and vertical curves of the designed road to make the curves and ramps conform to the technical standards of highway engineering. The safety of various alignment combinations should be fully considered.
(2) Improving road safety facilities
Road safety facilities mainly include partition belts, safety fences, traffic signs, markings, sight guidance facilities and anti-glare facilities. For urban traffic, pedestrian overpasses, underground passages, traffic safety islands, etc.
(3) Implementing traffic control
Traffic control can be divided into traffic signal control and traffic regulation control. Traffic signal control refers to the establishment of traffic lights at road entrances and intersections to reasonably control the driving of vehicles. Traffic regulation control includes setting up one-way traffic section, turning lane, bus lane, etc.
(4) Establishment of Traffic Information System
Traffic information is also known as traffic information. In order to ensure the safety and rapidity of vehicles traveling on automobile lanes or urban trunk roads, public security and management departments should report traffic congestion, weather, road ahead or temporary traffic control to drivers in time so that drivers can change their countermeasures in time.
(5) Establishing Emergency Rescue System for Accidents
The monitoring and forecasting system estimates possible accident areas according to abnormal weather conditions, adopts information collection and liaison system, and assigns special personnel to monitor and make preparations. When an accident occurs, advanced communication equipment and means should be used to quickly and reliably contact the relevant departments to deal with the accident in a timely and effective manner so as to ensure road safety and smoothness.
(6) Improving the Road Traffic Environment
The improvement of road traffic environment mainly includes two aspects: on the one hand, improving road environment, making drivers have good driving sight distance and constantly changing visual effect, improving the monotonous environment which makes drivers tired and irritable; on the other hand, improving traffic flow environment, keeping good density as far as possible, and avoiding as possible. No mixed traffic flow.
What is Express
November 15, 2018
Bicycle, Community Design, Enterpreneurship, Financing, Governanace & Policy, Growing, Storage, Transit, Trransporation, Utilities
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Express delivery, also known as express delivery or express delivery, refers to a new mode of transportation in which logistics enterprises (including freight forwarders) deliver documents or parcels entrusted by users quickly and safely from the sender’s door to the recipient’s door (hand delivery) through their own independent network or through joint venture cooperation (i.e. networking).
Express delivery can be divided into broad sense and narrow sense. In the broad sense, express delivery refers to the delivery of any goods (including bulk cargo); in the narrow sense, express delivery refers to the urgent delivery service of business documents and small pieces. The object of this textbook research and analysis is mainly the express industry in a narrow sense. According to the standard of service, express delivery generally refers to express delivery service completed within 48 hours. From the definition of express delivery, the following three characteristics of express delivery can be summarized:
From the economic category, express delivery is a branch of the logistics industry, and the research of express delivery belongs to the category of logistics.
From the perspective of business operation, express delivery is a new mode of transportation and an important link in the supply chain.
From the nature of operation, express delivery is a new service trade with high added value.