Category: Sequestrattion


The Practice of Lifelong Learning in Different Countries


Since the establishment of the theory of lifelong education, it has been attached great importance by all countries. Channels, and with the principle of lifelong education to restructure and design their own national education system, trying to establish a comprehensive implementation of lifelong education system from kindergarten to university for the aged, from family education to enterprise education.

1. Making Regulations

Through legislation, many countries have established the theory of lifelong education in law as the basic guiding ideology for the development and reform of education in China today and in the future. For example, Japan established the Lifelong Learning Bureau in 1988 and promulgated and implemented the Lifelong Learning Revitalization and Rectification Act in 1990. In the United States, a Lifelong Education Bureau was set up within the Federal Bureau of Education, and the Lifelong Learning Act was enacted and promulgated in 1976. In 1971, the French National Assembly enacted and passed a relatively perfect adult education law, the Lifelong Vocational Education Act, and in 1984 passed a new Vocational Continuing Education Act, which made Supplementary Provisions on some issues. In Korea, lifelong education was written into the Constitution in the early 1980s, and lifelong education policy began to be implemented. Many countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and Canada have enacted corresponding laws for lifelong education.

2. Incorporating Adult Education

In 1976, the Nairobi Conference adopted the Recommendations on the Development of Adult Education, which proposed that adult education should be part of lifelong education as a whole, and that education should not be limited to the school stage, but should be extended to all aspects of life and to all areas of skills and knowledge. Under the influence of this idea of lifelong education, governments all over the world regard adult education as the forerunner to promote the process of lifelong education, attach great importance to adult education, and ensure the development of adult education by making laws. In 1976, Norway was the first country in the world to adopt the Adult Education Act, which regarded adult education as the basis of lifelong learning system and promoted coordination and cooperation in various fields of adult education. In 1982, Korea enacted the Social (Adult) Education Act and institutionalized social (Adult) education. The education plan adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1973 classifies adult education as the fourth kind of education in parallel with the primary, secondary and higher education of general education. In order to ensure the implementation of adult education, many effective measures have been taken in many countries, such as flexible policies on admission conditions, paid education leave system, economic assistance, and the establishment of adult credit cumulative courses.

3. Opening to the Society

Changing the closed structure of schools and forming an open and flexible educational structure is an important practice in implementing lifelong education in various countries. In 1995, Japan held a “Lifelong Learning Review Conference” composed of well-known people from all walks of life, which required higher education institutions to open their doors to society and widely absorb in-service adults into higher education institutions. Adult universities in Japan have been incorporated into the University plan. Some senior high schools also hold open lectures to make high schools open to the community and play the role of cultural center of the school. In the United States, especially after the 1960s, social colleges aimed at district development have been vigorously developed, and their openness to adults has reached almost no limit. Many universities have set up university opening departments to carry out educational activities for “non-traditional students”. There are also open universities and adult education ministries in the UK, which provide adult education. In many countries in Europe, universities provide opportunities for continuing and returning education through public lectures, adult education centers and correspondence courses.

4. Developing in Various Channels

Many countries consciously incorporate cultural organizations, community organizations, vocational associations, enterprises and institutions into the lifelong education system, making full use of all kinds of resources and facilities with educational strength and value in society, so as to integrate education and society. In 1988, Japan put forward the proposal of “transition to lifelong education system”, developing social education organizations, establishing learning information networks, establishing a lifelong education system integrating family, society and school education, and incorporating various scientific and cultural facilities such as cultural clubs, libraries, museums and activity centers into the scope of education. Many non-educational institutions in the United States, such as prisons, trade unions, the military and hospitals, are also actively engaged in adult education. Many companies also provide training to their employees on a regular basis.
Although all countries have made some achievements in the field of lifelong education, on the whole, lifelong education is still in practice in all countries in the world, and no country has really established a complete lifelong education system.

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Road Traffic Safety


It refers to the state in which personal casualties or property losses can be controlled at an acceptable level in the course of traffic activities. Traffic safety means that the possibility of loss to people or things is acceptable; if this possibility exceeds the acceptable level, it is unsafe. As a dynamic open system, the safety of road traffic system is not only restricted by internal factors of the system, but also disturbed by external environment of the system. It is closely related to human, vehicle and road environment. Any unreliable, unbalanced and unstable factors in the system may lead to conflicts and contradictions, resulting in unsafe factors or unsafe states.

Characteristic

(1) Traffic safety is a state under certain dangerous conditions, and it is not absolutely free from traffic accidents.
(2) Traffic safety is not an instantaneous result, but a description of the process or state of the traffic system in a certain period or stage.
(3) Traffic safety is relative and absolute traffic safety does not exist.
(4) For different periods and regions, the acceptable level of loss is different, so the criteria for measuring the safety of the transportation system are different.

Measures

Raising the level of road traffic safety is a matter of great benefit to the country and the people. Many experts and scholars have carried out extensive and in-depth research in this area. Traffic accident prevention is one of the main tasks of traffic safety and an important part of traffic engineering research. From the point of view of traffic engineering, it is considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from three aspects: laws and regulations, education and engineering, and from the point of view of people, vehicles, roads and environment, which constitute the four elements of road traffic, it is also considered that the prevention of traffic accidents should start from these four elements.

Improving Transportation Legal System

Strengthening the construction of road traffic safety laws and regulations system is a direct and effective measure to improve the overall level of road traffic safety. At present, the content of our country’s road traffic safety regulation system has been covered in a number of different laws, regulations and other traffic management normative documents, and it plays an active and important role in our country’s road traffic operation practice. With the development of the times, the legal system should be amended and adjusted accordingly.

Strengthen Traffic Safety Education

(1) Carry out traffic safety propaganda
Traffic safety propaganda is an important way to publicize and educate the masses. In carrying out propaganda activities, we should attach importance to achieving practical results and link traffic safety with everyone’s vital interests so as to arouse people’s attention to traffic safety. We should adopt propaganda forms popular with the masses, incorporate them in people’s daily work and life, and in cultural entertainment. At the same time, propaganda activities must mobilize the strength of society to the greatest extent possible, and strive for the depth and breadth of propaganda to ensure the quality of propaganda.
(2) Strengthen traffic safety education
Traffic safety education, like other cultural knowledge, should be carried out systematically from the early childhood. Before high school, every stage of education was listed as a compulsory course, which enabled students to establish the concept of traffic legal system, traffic safety, traffic ethics and safety prevailing concepts from the beginning of education. To educate the society, we should adopt different ways and methods according to different objects, and carry out targeted education.

Improve vehicle safety performance and maintain good vehicle condition

To improve the safety performance of vehicles, we should take active safety measures and passive safety measures.
(1) Active safety measures
1) Improve side and front vision, install reversing lights and alarms to prevent traffic accidents caused by blind areas.
2) Improve the perspective performance of windowpanes to prevent traffic accidents caused by rain, snow and frost.
3) Take anti-glare measures to improve the illumination of headlamp in order to prevent traffic accidents caused by glare and insufficient illumination of headlamp.
4) In terms of power performance, the overtaking acceleration capability should be improved and the drive anti-skid system (TCS) should be installed.
5) In the aspect of stability, we should improve the stability and portability of operation, such as installing electronic stabilization program (ESP).
6) In braking aspect, the auxiliary braking system, ABS anti-lock braking system, retarder and braking system fault alarm system are installed to improve the anti-skid performance of tires, so as to ensure safety.
7) In terms of accident prevention measures, we should also improve the recognition performance of vehicles, including rear, signs and driving directions, in order to prevent accidents.
8) Active anti-collision warning system is adopted. When the vehicle encounters danger, the driver can be reminded in time. If the driver fails to take measures in time because of his errors, the system can automatically take measures to avoid danger (such as deceleration, bypass, etc.).
(2) Passive safety measures
1) In-car measures
In-car measures mainly include increasing occupant space as much as possible, i.e. the strength of the car body, in order to reduce the deformation of the collision, using toughened glass or partition glass to reduce the injury of the occupant caused by the accident, enlarging the area of the steering wheel to make it elastic, and making the switches, knobs and handles inside the car as round as possible. Sliding and soft; door and roof have enough strength to protect the safety of passengers and facilitate rescue. In addition, fire prevention performance, safety belt and airbag play an important role in occupant safety protection.
2) Outside measures
Extravehicular measures mainly refer to minimizing injuries when crashing bicycles and pedestrians, such as bumpers should be as smooth and flexible as possible, movable rearview mirrors and fenders, and protective nets connected with trailers, etc., which will have certain effects on the protection of the weak traffic.

Strengthen the Construction of Road and Traffic Safety Facilities

(1) Improving road conditions
Considering from the aspect of road alignment design, we should strictly follow the horizontal and vertical curves of the designed road to make the curves and ramps conform to the technical standards of highway engineering. The safety of various alignment combinations should be fully considered.
(2) Improving road safety facilities
Road safety facilities mainly include partition belts, safety fences, traffic signs, markings, sight guidance facilities and anti-glare facilities. For urban traffic, pedestrian overpasses, underground passages, traffic safety islands, etc.
(3) Implementing traffic control
Traffic control can be divided into traffic signal control and traffic regulation control. Traffic signal control refers to the establishment of traffic lights at road entrances and intersections to reasonably control the driving of vehicles. Traffic regulation control includes setting up one-way traffic section, turning lane, bus lane, etc.
(4) Establishment of Traffic Information System
Traffic information is also known as traffic information. In order to ensure the safety and rapidity of vehicles traveling on automobile lanes or urban trunk roads, public security and management departments should report traffic congestion, weather, road ahead or temporary traffic control to drivers in time so that drivers can change their countermeasures in time.
(5) Establishing Emergency Rescue System for Accidents
The monitoring and forecasting system estimates possible accident areas according to abnormal weather conditions, adopts information collection and liaison system, and assigns special personnel to monitor and make preparations. When an accident occurs, advanced communication equipment and means should be used to quickly and reliably contact the relevant departments to deal with the accident in a timely and effective manner so as to ensure road safety and smoothness.
(6) Improving the Road Traffic Environment
The improvement of road traffic environment mainly includes two aspects: on the one hand, improving road environment, making drivers have good driving sight distance and constantly changing visual effect, improving the monotonous environment which makes drivers tired and irritable; on the other hand, improving traffic flow environment, keeping good density as far as possible, and avoiding as possible. No mixed traffic flow.

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