Did you know that it is possible to produce a profit from nothing more than having access to animal manure? If you have a large-scale farm, or even a small farm with multiple farm animals, you can use this to your advantage. This manure can be converted into fertilizer that will be not only your own farm, those that are also planting crops every year. You simply need the equipment that can allow you to convert it from animal manure to profitable fertilizer that you can sell to the highest bidder.
What Type Of Animal Manure Can Use?
Chicken manure as fertiliser that you use will depend on several factors. For example, you may want to consider using cattle manure which is very efficient. Chicken manure is highly potent with an abundance of nitrogen. There are other farm animals that will also produce viable manure that can be converted into compost very easily. To do this, you will need machinery that will allow you to make horse manure fertilizer. Although this is an initial investment that you will have to make, you can save a lot of money on the cost of purchasing fertilizer for your crops by using manure that you have access to today.
Where Can You Find Low Cost Equipment?
To make your initial investment, you will need several different types of machines of making compost. You will need machines that can help you convert the manure into compost. It is this material that will then be placed into a fertilizer plant, converting it directly into pellets that you can use or store. This material is what you will be able to sell at a profit. There are so many businesses that will allow you to do this easily. You can advertise, or you can simply have a relationship with local farms that will purchase it from you annually. To get the manure composting machine price for the purpose of producing compost and subsequently fertilizer, look outside of your country in areas of the world where the cost of production is lower.
How To Make Profits From Your Animal Manure
There are three ways that you can make a profit from your animal manure. First of all, you can sell the manure directly. There are many businesses that are likely in your area that may have a shortage of manure that they can convert into compost for this purpose. Second, you can produce compost from the manure which can also be sold. Third, you can buy an entire compost fertilizer plant for making simple organic fertilizers from pig manure and produce the fertilizer pellets that you can sell. Although the initial investment can be high, it will be more than profitable once you are producing fertilizer on a continual basis.
How Much Will It Cost?
The total cost will depend on several factors. You do need to work with the business that understands how to produce machines for composting and also those that will produce fertilizer. If you need an entire fertilizer plant, you can also obtain one from a reliable and affordable source. The comparison that you do between the many companies that you find will help you narrow down your final choice. You will have one delivered soon, allowing you to start producing fertilizer from the compost that you can create regularly.
Making profits from your organic fertilizer mass production is very easy to accomplish. There are multiple businesses that will buy it directly from you. You can also have a separate business where you are converting the manure into compost. You also have the option of converting the compost into fertilizer as well. As long as you have animals that are constantly producing manure, you will have several different options when it comes to profiting from cow dung fertilizer process. All it takes is a little bit of research to find the best companies that will sell you composting machines and fertilizer plants that you can acquire for less.
When people think about fertilizer, they are often do not assume that organic waste can be used for this process. This is something that is often processed by a municipal solid waste company. The conversion of this material into fertilizer may not be something they would consider. However, every business that owns of a farm, especially that which has cattle, is likely to use this material for fertilizer every single month. They must have the machine necessary to convert the organic waste from farm animals into fertilizer that can be used for their crops.
Can You Use Organic Waste For This Purpose?
Can you use cow manure for fertilizer? Using organic waste from cattle, goats, or even chickens, you can create some of the best fertilizers in the world. They will have all of the nutrients that you will need in order to fertilize your crops and you will not have to pay for it. You will need to obtain the compost fermentation machine that can convert this material, and also the inability to store it for future use. It all begins with composting the organic waste, which prepares it for the conversion of this material to fertilizer which can go through a machine or an organic frtilizer mini plant.
What Components Would You Need With The Fertilizer Plant?
A fertilizer plant can be obtained very easily, but you must know what each and every component is actually doing. If you are missing one component, this could affect your ability to mass-produce fertilizer from your compost. Keep in mind that the machinery you are using for preparing of chicken manure to fertilizer should also be fully automated as well. This will enable you to convert tons of this material, on autopilot, so that it can be put through the fertilizer machinery to convert it into pellets.
How Much Of This Material Can You Use?
You can easily use a large amount of this material if you have equipment calibrated for this purpose. For example, you can have multiple piles of composting material, and in the span of just a few months, get it ready for the compost machinry that will convert it into fertilizer. It is highly recommended that you convert all of this into pellets. This will enable you to not only use the material now, and in the future, but also sell it to those that will also need it for their crops. In many cases, you can process hundreds of tons of compost, make fertilizer from pig manure, and do so with a minimal amount of effort.
As long as you have animals that are producing organic waste on your property, you can easily convert all of this into fertilizer. If you have been purchasing NPK fertilizer for years, you may want to invest in npk fertilizer machine that can create the fertilizer for you. Some of the fertilizer can be used on your farm, and the remainder can be sold to the highest bidder. Whether you are using chicken manure, cow manure, or any other animal manure on your property, it can produce robust fertilizer when using the right manure granulator machine or a fertilizer production plant.
The purpose of using a compost turner is to accelerate the aerobic process which leads to converting organic waste into compost. If you were to create a pile of this material, and turn it occasionally, you can still create compost over the course of the month. However, if you want to have this occur at a much faster rate, a compost turner would be an ideal solution. You can do this manually, or you can invest in businesses that can provide you with automated compost turners that will do the work for you. This is how you can effectively use a compost turner to increase the amount of compost that you can produce.
Easy Ways To Use A Compost Turner
Encumbrancer begins with installing a drum on a platform that you can turn. As it rotates, it will aerate this material, allowing the aerobic process of the bacteria to become more abundant. This will help break down the material much more quickly. This is better done if you have an commercial composting process. It will allow you to save a lot of time, and be much more efficient, creating the compost. Therefore, if you want to produce the maximum amount possible, you need a hot composting system.
How To Find Companies That Sell Automated Systems
Organic waste composting machine manufacturer can do so at different levels. You can use a small one for a small garden or business that you have that is producing a minimal amount of crops. On the other hand, you may need something that is much larger. It will enable you to create tons of this material on autopilot. Another possibility is that you could use a windrow turner that you can drive over the top of the elongated piles of this material which will be converted into compost. You can find these businesses by searching for automated compost systems.
The Best Way To Get One For Your Business
If you would like to obtain one for your company, you can make offers with different businesses. This will enable you to save money, and also get one of the best compost technology on the planet. You could get several of them, or one large factory that is dedicated to creating organic compost for you instead. The cost of operations, and the initial cost of purchasing all of this, should be calculated before making this investment. Once it is shipped, and has arrived at your facility, you can then put everything together. It is a literal factory for preparing compost manure using different types of organic materials.
A compost turner is one of the easiest ways of making compost. If you would like to get one that is manual, or is perhaps fully automated, it will be very easy to do. You will soon have more compost than you will need, and may be able to sell this to other companies. The compost turner that you choose should be priced affordably and highly efficient. It will accelerate the rate by which you are able to make compost.
Making organic fertilizer can be a wonderful idea. There’s plenty of raw material around, waiting for someone to collect it and to turn it into something useful. This raw matter can be cow dung, chicken manure, and any other type of bio waste. As you can imagine, farmers in your neighborhood would be happy to have this waste removed without them lifting a finger. Also, the equipment you need to set up your organic fertilizer production plant is fairly inexpensive. This sets the entry barrier at a low level. Let’s see what which machines you need in this organic fertilizer making process and where you can get them from at affordable cost.
If you want to use compost as raw matter, you’ll need to invest in compost making and grinding equipment. However, keep in mind that making compost yourself requires a relatively large production of organic fertilizer and storage space. Also this process takes a long time, so your production cycles will be long and difficult to coordinate and control. If this is what you want, consider buying a compost turner machine and a crusher for handling fermented material. The main goal is to crush the cake-like fertilizer blocks into a powdery matter.
Whatever your choice, let’s assume that you do have the raw material ready to be made into organic fertilizer granules, packaged and sold to farmers near you. Here are the steps of the organic fertilizerproduction process and the machines you’ll need to buy to set up your plant.
Animal dung contains a high amount of moisture. The raw material requires dehydration. In order to achieve this, you have to use a solid-liquid separator machine. Following the dehydration process, the resulting matter has about 30% – 40% moisture. This is the right time to turn it into granules. The equipment you’ll need includes a rotary drum drying machine and a rotary drum cooling machine. In fact, these are distinct modules of a full production line, so you may not need to buy them separately. Just make sure that the organic fertilizer making equipment you order includes both these modules. The role of these machines is to remove even more moisture from the animal dung, and therefore prepare it for the next stage of the organic fertilizer making process.
Organic fertilizer needs to be homogeneous, in order to adequately fertilize the crops. You can’t have granules of different sizes, as they may result in a poor development of the plants. In order to make sure your organic fertilizer has granules of the same size, you need to process it with the help of a rotary drum screening machine. Granules that don’t pass will be fed again into the machine, until you get the desired size.
Last but not least, you need to weigh and pack the fertilizer granules, in order to sell them to your clients or to use them on your own crops. You’ll need an organic fertilizer packing scale to pack the fertilizer pellets. More often than not, manufacturers of such equipment sell full production lines, so you won’t have to shop for them separately. Just find a reliable provider and have them install your plant for you.
It’s wise to learn how to buy a brand new commercial composting machine in 2022. You want to spend your money on something that is high in quality without being too expensive. Before you buy anything, be sure you read through the tips here so you can find what you’re looking for the first time.
You need to learn what a fair price is to pay for a composting machine. There are going to be some sellers that want a lot more for what they have than what it’s supposed to be worth. Try to learn what a lot of different sellers have their prices set at so you can get to know what this will cost you on average. Don’t just buy the first machine you find because that is how you end up paying too much. Look over what a lot of sellers want you to pay and then go with what is worth it.
Reviews are good to look up when you’re trying to buy any kind of machinery. You want to find out what people are saying so you don’t get something that is known for being terrible for different reasons. Try to go with a composting turner of commercial purpose that you know is going to benefit you a lot because it’s known for being worth the money. There will always be some that are good and some that are not a good buy. Read at least three reviews and it will be easy to track down the best option.
It’s smart to learn how to use this kind of machine before you try to operate it. There are steps you have to take if you want to use it in the right manner every step of the way. There will be some machines that are harder to use than others and some will be very easy to figure out. However, sometimes people won’t share instructions online so you will want to contact the seller to see if they can provide you with a manual that you can read through. If you still can’t figure out how to work it after reading about it, see if you can hire a local professional that can teach you what to do.
Machinery needs to be taken care of as much as possible if you want it to last you a long while. For the most part, all you have to do is clean the machine regularly so it can work its best. You may have to take it apart if you want to be able to access all of the parts you’re going to want to clean. If anything seems to be amiss when you’re working on maintenance, then it’s good to take on the problem before you use the machinery again.
You now know how to buy a brand new commercial type of fermenting equipment in 2022. Be aware of what your options are and go with what the best one is. It’s easy to find what you need if you do a little bit of research at first.
There are very innovative, yet simplistic machines, that are capable of converting various types of compost into pellets. Whether you have a cattle ranch, chicken farm, or if you raise other types of livestock, you likely have tons of material that you could use every day. The concept itself is relatively simple.
The material is placed into the machine where it will be spun at a high rate of speed. Through the power of centrifugal force, the granules that are produced can then be dried and stored, providing you and your business with manure that can be used in the future. Pellets make it very easy to spread the manure, plus it will decompose slowly over time. It’s a great way to utilize what is naturally produced by your own livestock, and there are many machines that can convert this material on a daily basis.
The Process Itself
There are actually a couple of steps to this process. First of all, the raw wet manure needs to be dried. Once that is done, this organic fertilizer can be changed into a powder. It is this powder that will then be converted into pellets. Although there are several steps to this process, modern technology makes it possible for this to occur hour after hour. There are different machines, including a pan granulation machine, which can produce tons of this material.
How To Assess These Machines
These machines can be assessed by looking at three or four different factors. First of all, there is the capacity of the machine itself. The higher the capacity, the more pellets you will be able to produce. You should also consider the type of power, and how much power, that these machines will use. The size of the machine, in regard to its overall volume, should also be a consideration. You may not have a lot of room at your current place of business. Therefore, you will need to choose between the smaller or larger units that are available. Perhaps the final consideration is the price, but you should also consider where this machine will be originating from. If it happens to be in a foreign country, you must consider the cost of shipping, and how soon it will arrive, especially if you are on a very specific schedule.
How Are The Pellets Made?
Once the dry manure is made into a powder, it can then be placed into one of these organic compost granulation machines. As mentioned before, they will use centrifugal force to produce the pellets. This means that there is significant high speed rotation occurring. The material you are using should not have any more than 30% moisture or water content. This will allow it to interact freely without clogging the system. It is also essential that the powder be uniform in the distribution of moisture. This will lead to more uniform sizes for the pellets that are created. By adding binders to this material, during the granulation process, intermodular forces will bring everything together. What you will end up with or thousands of pellets that can be stored or used immediately. This is how most of these machines produce organic fertilizing pellets.
It is imperative that you get several different estimates from a variety of companies. They could be differentiated by the size of the business, or what the business tends to focus upon. If you are fortunate enough to find a manufacturer that is one of the premier compost pellet making machine manufacturers, you can feel confident about its capabilities. Whether you need one of these or several of these units, they should be able to ship everything in a reasonable amount of time. You will soon have a fully adjustable and efficient pellet making machine designed for producing compost pellets for your business.
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If you have a chicken farm, and you would like to convert chicken manure into fertilizer, you will need composting equipment at your disposal. Depending upon the size of your farm, and the number of chickens that are producing the newer, you may need to get one of the largest systems. Whether you use all of the fertilizer is not important. You can always sell this material to other businesses for a profit. The key is to not allow it to go to waste. That is why obtaining a quality poultry manure composting system is in the best interest of your business. The following information will help you find this equipment which can assist you in converting poultry manure into fertilizer by using the compost.
How Does This Process Work?
The process itself is fairly straightforward. In the production of fertilizer, it begins with compost that must go through a chemical process. Bacteria is also involved. It requires the rotation of the compost to create the fertilizer that can be formed. The composting equipment that you may need will include machines that will rotate the material for you. Finally, once prepared, you can then use a rotary drum fertilizer machine to produce as much as you want. Overall, these can be either very small systems are extremely large ones for enormous chicken farms that produce vast amounts of manure.
How To Find The Businesses That Produce Them
The companies that produce these machines are found worldwide. Their production levels, and the capabilities of these machines, can vary from business to business. The amount of time that you spend looking, and the money that you will save, will depend upon the research that you do. By learning more about each manufacturer, and the quality of their products, you can make the best purchase for your company. To find the businesses that produce them, industrial websites are often showcasing some of the top companies. Estimates from these businesses will lead you to the best systems for converting poultry manure into composting organic fertilizer.
Best Machines For Accelerating The Process
Windrow compost turners are perhaps the most unique of all machines for this process. They are designed to literally move through long rows of this material that can be turned over at a fast pace. Designed to work on large and small farming operations, they can help you produce more fertilizer than ever before. It takes just a few minutes to locate these businesses which can offer you this equipment and much more.
If you do need to obtain poultry manure composting making equipment, you now have a few ideas. From the conversion of the manure into compost, and subsequently, into fertilizer, you will need multiple systems for this entire process. It just depends on how much time you have to spend on searching for each company that can sell them to you. Eventually, you will obtain one that is large enough to handle the volume of poultry manure that is being produced at your place of business.
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Composting chicken manure is something that can be done manually. It is very common for piles of this material to chemically decompose leading to fertilizer that is used later. However, there are machines that are capable of converting this chicken manure into pellets that can be used at a future date. These machines are available in many areas of the world. Large chicken farms will likely benefit from having the ability to not waste the tons of manure that are produced annually. If you would like to get a complete set of machines for the sole purpose of composting chicken manure, here is how you can locate some of the best ones available.
How Do These Machines Produce Compass Granules?
In a similar way to all other pellet-making machines, there are components within the apparatus that spin. As it begins to spin, the manure will be converted into granules or pellets that can be dried and subsequently stored for later use. This is very different from standard composting drums that you can purchase at a local feed store. These tend to just accelerate the process of converting chicken manure into usable compost.
If you want to produce pellets compost, you will need a pellet making machine that is specifically configured for working with chicken manure.
How Do These Work?
These are relatively simplistic in their design. There is a hopper at the top. This is where of the material will be deposited. There will be a section where the material will be spun at high rates of speed. This is all operated using an electric motor. Once the pellets have been produced, they will be heated to a certain temperature so they can solidify. These will then come down a chute where they will fall into bags or containers that will allow the user to package and store this material.
How To Find Companies That Produce Them
The companies that produce these are typically very large. Many of the top companies in the world for the farming industry will have hundreds of different machines. One of those is going to be a composting machine designed for chicken manure. You will want to locate a chicken manure pellet-producing machine. They should have several different models for fertilizer production, of many different sizes, one of which will be designed just for your business. Whether you have an enormous chicken farm, or if you have a small farm with just a few hundred chickens, processing your manure is something you should be doing.
When you are able to produce this fertilizer, converting it into pellets, you can save yourself a lot of money. You won’t have to worry about discarding the manure, or purchasing more manure in the future, as you will be creating everything that you will need. Best of all, it will be dry and packaged, which means it could sit there for years, allowing you to place it wherever it needs to go. It’s perfect for businesses that have not only chickens, but crops that they grow annually, and this is some of the best manure that you can use. Start looking today for a complete set of machines for composting chicken manure today.
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Today, manure has become a huge part of organic farming. Consequently, composting has become a popular activity. Not only does composting get rid of waste in the environment, but it also recycles it to provide nutrients for crops. You can either do manual composting or go ahead and invest in manure composting equipment. That said, let’s look at why you should invest in manure composting equipment.
5 Reasons Why Manure Composting Equipment are Beneficial
1. They Help in Protecting Humans from Diseases
The use of manure composting equipment is beneficial to human health in many ways. For example, untreated animal waste contains high levels of sulfur, ammonia, and moisture that attract flies. These flies are responsible for spreading infections and diseases to humans. However, with the help of manure composting equipment, animal waste can be treated and transferred to farms away from where people live.
Secondly, using manure fermenting machine means that the people making organic fertilizers do not have to handle animal waste directly. As long as they wear protective clothing, they can easily handle the waste through the machines. That way, they avoid inhaling harmful gases and touching infectious animal waste.
2. They Increase Agricultural Production and Income
Organic fertilizer machine produces high-quality fertilizers that enhance the quality of agricultural products. More importantly, the fertilizers increase the quantity and size of crops, delivering greater benefits to farmers. For these reasons, governments across the world continue to promote green foods, pollution-free foods, and inorganic foods. Furthermore, using organic fertilizers is in line with the green environmental protection initiative.
3. The Machines Help in Saving Time
Using a manure composting machine is more efficient when compared to using manual laborers to do all the work. Because machines do not get tired, they can work for long hours, whether night or day without stopping. In addition, machines are faster than manual workers which helps you to save time.
4. High-Quality Work is Guaranteed
Using a machine for manure composting tasks means that the final output will be uniform and consistent. This is because machines can be set to be consistent by eliminating errors and human guesswork. For example, if you’re using a pellet machine, the size of the pellets is bound to be the same. More importantly, there will be less wastage in terms of fuel and raw materials.
5. Helps Lower Operational Costs
Choosing to use manure composting equipment helps you reduce your operational costs significantly. First, you will not need as many employees when you have all the right equipment. As a result, you will not spend much on labor costs.
More importantly, there will be no congestion at the workplace. That way, the chances of employees getting injured will be eliminated. In return, you will not have to deal with numerous lawsuits and compensation expenses for injured employees.
While some people are still stuck on traditional manure composting methods, it is advisable to adopt modern methods. Simply start by buying all the necessary equipment to help you automate as many tasks as possible. In the long run, you will realize that you’ll be making huge savings while enjoying high-quality output!
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When you’re buying equipment such as a compost turner, there’s no reason for you to be satisfied with anything below the ideal equipment available. It’s easy to find a compost turner for sale, but not every model you can see is a good fit for organic fertilizer production. These are some of the standards to focus on if you would like choose the right machinery for your needs.
Search for a Trustworthy Supplier
The ability you’ll have shopping for an organic fertilizer composting machine can vary according to which supplier you deal with. Should you don’t currently have a seller which you trust, you must look more closely at a number of your different choices.
You must aim to identify a supplier which is able of answering your questions. Your seller should have a long-standing relationship with manufacturers. You need to utilize a well-established supplier that you know you’ll be able to rely on.
Go with a Model That Was Intended for Organic Fertilizer Production
It’s important to confirm the model you pick out is ideal for the thing you need it to do. That’s why you ought to specifically locate a compost turner that had been designed for organic fertilizer production. When you purchase machinery which had been specifically designed along with your needs under consideration, you’ll see more satisfactory results.
You can find challenges related to the manufacture of organic fertilizer, and you’ll wish to purchase composting turner equipment that is capable of doing meeting those challenges. Read product descriptions closely to be able to find the correct compost turner for you.
Order from a Manufacturer with a Great Reputation
Brand names can let you know considerably, particularly when you’re buying heavy machinery. As you don’t need to look for manufacturers that you recognize, it is advisable to examine different brands before buying.
You ought to aim to buy a item that was produced by a properly-established organic fertilizer equipment manufacturer which has a long history behind them. Keep with manufacturers that aren’t unfamiliar with producing compost turners. You’ll desire to make sure you’re buying from your manufacturer that knows how to create a quality product.
Take the Time to Compare Several Options
This can be a fairly significant purchase, and there’s no requirement for anyone to rush to produce a final decision. Instead, it’s wise to identify several options that could meet your requirements. Once you’ve found your greatest choices, you may make time to compare these different products against one another.
A direct comparison may allow you to notice facts you might have missed otherwise. You’ll have the capacity to start to see the advantages that a person machine has over a number of your additional options. By conducting most of these comparisons, you’ll be capable of see clearly what each of your alternatives offers you.
Locating the best compost turner for organic fertilizer production might be a time-consuming process. Since there are a variety of factors that you’ll must consider, you might struggle to find your best choice without delay. Still, when you follow the advice above, you’ll be able to identify some excellent products. Welcome to our website for consultation about the compost turner. https://www.fertilizerplantcost.com/compost-turner-for-sale/
When it comes to producing fertilizer, there are a couple of things that must be selected carefully. One of these is the compost turner machine that plays the biggest role where organic waste fermentation is concerned. Read on as we dive into some tips for helping select your compost Turner machine.
Before you can select the compost Turner of your dreams, you’ll need to think about the different machines that exist and which best suits you. The following are some of the different types of turner’s available on the markets:
* Hydraulic compost Turner – Some companies offer different types of hydraulic turners all with their own features. Some are crawlers, some perform the task faster, and they’re even very compact.
* Groove-type composers – These provide a strong crushing ability and they can also be used in both vertical and horizontal displacement. This makes them even more flexible than others. However, there is one limitation that forces the turner to work hand in hand with a fermentation tank.
* Self-propelled – These are specially designed and they’re very reliable and safe. Self-propelled machines are excellent for providing the space required by zymogeneous bacteria.
Even if you’re just getting started, you’ll need a compost Turner to get your operations up and running. However, the most mind-boggling thing anyone is faced with is the fact that there are so many of these on the market and it’s hard to find a place to start. With that said, you’ll need to think about your business needs.
In essence, this reduces the options and brings some of the more important considerations to the table. When it comes to purchasing a compost Turner, you’ll need to pay attention to how safe the equipment is. This just simply means that you’ll need to examine how safe the machine is for an operator as well as others in the surrounding environment. So, be on the lookout for the CE mark.
Additionally, the overall working speed of the composter and the windrow’s size also plays a huge part in your choice. Hence, some of the more powerful machines will essentially have a better throughput rate and they’ll be capable of processing bigger piles of raw materials. Another considering factor is the aisle spacing that is needed to facilitate turning. Some of the self-driven models are known for requiring less space when compared to the models that are on tow.
Besides the technical aspects of the compost Turner, you’ll also need to think about the investment. As such, this will affect your budget and by extension the type of machine that you’re able to purchase. Machines with larger capacities and throughput will be priced much higher than regular ones. So, before you purchase a compost Turner, you’ll need to also factor in the cost.
As we conclude, we have just looked at the different types of compost turners and we’ve also looked at some tips for choosing them. Before you purchase a compost turner, you’ll need to think about the needs of your company and you’ll also need to think about your budget. Before you buy a turner, it’s a good idea to assess and then make conclusions about your options. More detailed info, go here.
Biotechnology is a well-known term. The National Science and Technology Commission defines biotechnology as “biotechnology contains a series of technologies that can produce the products we need from organisms or cells, including gene recombination, cell fusion and some biological manufacturing processes.”
In fact, human beings have a long history of using organisms or cells to produce the products we need, such as tillage 10,000 years ago, animal husbandry to provide a stable source of food, fermentation technology to brew wine and make bread 6,000 years ago, fungus to treat wounds 2,000 years ago, and use in 1797. Smallpox vaccine, the discovery of antibiotic penicillin in 1928, etc.
Since human beings have been using biotechnology for so long, why has biotechnology suddenly attracted widespread attention since 1990? This is because since the 1950s, the scientific community has had a better understanding of the cells that constitute the smallest unit of organisms and the genes that control the genetic characteristics of cells, as well as the development of gene recombination and cell fusion techniques in the 1970s. Since these two technologies can enable cells or organisms to produce the substances we need more effectively, and contribute to industrial or agricultural production, a new biotechnology industry has been created since the 1980s.
Bill Gates said in 1996 that “biotechnology will change the world like computer software”. Modern biotechnology industry has been developing since 1980, and its applications include pharmaceuticals, agriculture, environmental protection, food processing, special chemicals and other industries. In the field of biomedical pharmaceuticals, 155 biotechnology drugs or vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States and used to treat diabetes, heart disease, cancer, AIDS and other diseases. In agriculture, genetic recombinant plants such as papaya, tomato, maize and soybean have been listed. These plants are characterized by strong resistance to pests and diseases, and can reduce the use of chemical pesticides.
The progress of human civilization is from the collecting society of early fishery hunting life to the agricultural society dominated by farming and animal husbandry, and then to the modern industrial society. Because of the increasing population and the over-exploitation of industrial land, the area of agricultural cultivated land has been reduced. In addition, the generation of greenhouse effect has also accelerated the extinction of species other than human beings, making the food problem become a very important core issue in the 21st century. With limited resources and unlimited human growth, some people have come up with the idea that if food could be increased by high technology, there would not be a day when food would be eaten up. Therefore, with the vigorous development of biotechnology, many things that could not be done before can be done today in the 21st century. Many impossible tasks can be accomplished through biotechnology, such as the use of smears or patches to influence body fat to achieve beauty and weight loss, or the use of Botox is an example of biotechnology.
Since human beings, people have tried to transform organisms. Traditionally, breeding and mating were used to acquire desired biological traits (such as sweet and tasty corn) and to reduce or eliminate undesirable traits (such as natural toxicity). On the other hand, food is a necessity for human growth, and the population has increased rapidly recently. In view of the shortage of food, so-called “artificial food” has begun to emerge. However, the biggest limitation of traditional breeding is that the mating varieties must be the same or similar. In order to break through this limitation, modern genetic engineering technology should be used scientifically to select the genes with some excellent characteristics of organisms accurately and transfer them to another species so that the new genetically modified organisms have the expected specific characteristics.
Data from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) show that in 1991, Calgene applied for genetically modified tomatoes to transfer antisense polygalacturonase (PG) gene into tomatoes, delaying the maturation and softening of tomatoes. In 1994, the company’s “Flavor” (FLAVR SAVR) tomato was the world’s first approved genetically modified food. The PG gene that promotes the ripening of soft enzymes in delicious tomatoes is inhibited, so its texture is more solid, and it can reduce the damage and deterioration during harvesting, transportation and processing, thus preserving the flavor. At present, however, commercial production of tomatoes has ceased. In 1994, there were 29 applications, including soybeans, tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cotton and melons. Monsanto is one of the big companies.
In addition, in environmental protection, some toxic industrial wastes and contaminated crude oil have been decomposed by recombinant microorganisms. In food, fermentation engineering technology has been used to produce healthy foods such as lactic acid bacteria, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis. In special chemicals, recombinant enzymes have been used to produce drugs or fibers. Or use it in detergents to decompose dirt. By 2001, there were about 1500 biotechnology companies worldwide, with an annual output value of $30 billion.
The technology of gene recombination and cell fusion is the cornerstone of modern biotechnology. In recent years, many new technologies and new applications have been developed on this basis. For example, protein engineering technology can be used to improve the structure and activity of proteins, and Bionanotechnology can be used to manufacture biosensors, biochips and drugs. Transport systems, tissue engineering technology can use stem cells to repair damaged organs, and animal replication technology can use nuclear transfer to replicate animals, etc.
The development of biotechnology aims at curing diseases, improving the quality of life, providing food that is not scarce and protecting our living environment. However, if not strictly monitored during the development of biotechnology, it may cause harm to human beings or the ecosystem of the earth. Attention should also be paid to its impact on humanity, morality or ecology.
As the application of biotechnology is very extensive and closely related to our daily life, there are often related reports in general newspapers and magazines or news media, so understanding new knowledge of biotechnology should be included in our regular study.
The task of biotechnology is to explore the mystery of life and master the law of life movement.
- Genetically modified products
- Genetically modified food
- brief introduction
The application of science and technology brings convenience, but also brings unknown fears. When the technology of gene recombination is widely used in the development of biology, medicine, agriculture and industry, and may even enter more fields in the future, which deeply affects our lives, we seem to realize that this is an irresistible trend. Therefore, it is more correct to have a positive understanding of genetically modified foods, to think rationally about acceptability, and to leave the right of choice to everyone.
The so-called “genetic modification” refers to the selection of specific genes for individual traits of organisms and the alteration of their genome composition and expression. Scientists use different biotechnologies, such as restriction enzymes, to make target gene fragments, then connect DNA fragments to “vector” DNA molecules, and then transfer vectors to target chromosomes. This process is a kind of genetic engineering.
Different from the traditional breeding method, the transfer of traits is limited to individuals of the same species or similar provenances. Modern genetic engineering technology has broken through the traditional pattern of breeding. It can insert foreign genes from different provenances into plants in a “man-made” way. In addition, genes can even be derived from microorganisms or animals. Body. For example, insecticidal crystalline toxin gene (cry-gene) from Bacillus thuringiensis was implanted into maize, which can also synthesize insecticidal toxin protein produced by cry gene. Therefore, it has insect-resistant characteristics. This maize with cry gene implanted artificially can be called a GMO.
GMO (genetically modified organism) can generally be divided into three categories, namely:
Genetically modified microorganisms (and their products): including microorganisms that can be used as fermented food or as food additives such as enzymes, aminoacids, organic acids, vitamins, pigments and spices.
Genetically modified crops (and their processed products): This is the fastest growing area in GMOs. Transgenic crops such as soybeans, maize, tomatoes and potatoes have been introduced.
Transgenic animals (and their processed products): Salmon transfected with growth hormone gene, but most of them are at the research stage.
Genetically modified foods (GMF = GM foods), also known as genetically modified foods, are processed by GMO. Therefore, all foods derived from genetic recombination technology are called genetically modified foods. How does genetically modified food come into being?
Generally speaking, there are two main ways to implant functional foreign genes into plants. For dicotyledons such as soybeans, tomatoes and cotton, gene transfer is usually achieved by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium crown can naturally (i.e. without any artificial treatment) infect a wide variety of plants by inserting a segment of its own DNA directly into the DNA of infected plants, so long as the oncogene in Agrobacterium crown DNA is removed, and the foreign gene to be inserted into the stem of Agrobacterium crown. Bacteria infect plants so that additional genes can be transferred to the DNA of infected dicotyledons. Cells containing additional genes in infected plants can be further screened out, and cell culture techniques can be used to produce complete plants containing additional genes. As far as monocotyledons (e.g. maize, wheat and rice) are concerned, Agrobacterium crown is not very effective in infecting them. Generally, the foreign genes to be implanted are coated on tungsten balls, and then the tungsten balls coated with foreign genes are physically introduced into plant cells, some of which have foreign bases. As part of plant DNA, these plant cells containing foreign genes can be screened out and cultured into complete beads because they fall off from the surface of tungsten particles. In addition to Agrobacterium coronatum, plant viruses are often used as vectors, but not all plant viruses have the function of vectors unless the virus can be dispersed between cells via plasmodesmata, and foreign genes must be replicated and the modified viral nucleic acid can infect plant cells. It does not cause symptoms, and the virus must be widely parasitic. Generally speaking, DNA is the main target of gene transfer. RNA-containing viruses are considered only when viruses using DNA are not effective. It is preferable for plant viruses to contain DNA rather than RNA as vectors. However, only caulimo virus and Gemini virus are known to contain DNA, among which caulimo virus and Gemini virus are used. The latter is widely favored by researchers because it can infect dicotyledons and monocotyledons and has a wide range of hosts.
Controversy over genetically modified foods
In recent years, biotechnology has been gradually applied to food production, so the derivatives of genetically modified foods have also been listed on the market. There are still many controversies about the impact of genetically modified food on human body, which requires long-term and extensive research. In order to understand the public’s knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified foods, the Department commissioned a survey on “the public’s knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology and genetically modified foods” by private companies. It is hoped to understand the public’s attitude towards genetically modified foods and their views on labeling policies, which will serve as a reference for future government to formulate relevant laws and regulations. According to.
Threats to the environment include:
(1) threats to non-target organisms and beneficial insects;
(2) reduction of biodiversity;
(3) gene drift and genetic pollution.
The main economic impacts are as follows:
Loss in the market
Although the crop itself will not move, food made from it can be sold everywhere, which also arouses many people’s concerns about genetically modified crops. In 2000, Nature magazine reported that Star Link Corn, an unauthorized genetically modified maize for human consumption, had flowed into Japan’s food distribution network. Star corn is not allowed to be eaten by humans in Japan, although it can be used as feed in the United States, mainly because it contains an insecticidal toxin called Cry9C, which is thought by scientists to cause allergic reactions after being eaten. In the past, about one third of the maize exported by the United States was exported to Japan, while the European Union purchased about 40% of the soybean exported by the United States. Consumers in these areas have doubts about the food safety of genetically modified maize or soybean, which will pose a great threat to future exports of the United States.
For farmers growing organic crops, if they are cross-pollinated or mixed with genetically modified crops, they will suffer serious marketing problems due to poor quality, especially maize and sugar beet, which are cross-pollination plants. In this way, farmers who produce organic agricultural products will have to temporarily withdraw from the organic product market, and their income will drop sharply before they get organic certification again.
Bio Engine Composting Part 2
Classification by type of fermentation plant
According to the type of fermentation device, there are vertical composting fermentation tower, horizontal composting fermentation drum, silo composting fermentation tank and box composting fermentation tank.
1 vertical compost fermentation tower
Vertical composting fermentation tower usually consists of 5-8 layers. The composting material enters the tower from the top of the tower. In the tower, composting moves from the top of the tower to the bottom of the tower through different forms of mechanical movement. Generally, after 5 to 8 days of aerobic fermentation, the compost is moved from the top of the tower to the bottom of the tower to complete a fermentation. Vertical composting fermentation tower usually has a closed structure. The temperature distribution in the tower gradually increases from the upper layer to the lower layer, that is, the lowest layer has the highest temperature. In order to ensure the activity of microorganisms in each layer for high-speed composting and maintain the optimum temperature and ventilation volume of microorganisms in each layer of the tower respectively, the oxygen supply of the tower device is usually forced ventilated by a fan, and the air is quantitatively ventilated into the tower through the vents of different heights installed on the side of the tower body to meet the micro-generation. The demand for oxygen.
Vertical composting fermentation tower usually includes vertical multi-stage cylinder type, vertical multi-stage landing gate type, vertical multi-stage blade scraper type, vertical multi-stage movable bed type, etc.
2 horizontal composting fermentation drums
Horizontal composting fermentation drum is also called Danot type. The main equipment is a horizontal drum with a length of 20-35 m and a diameter of 2-3.5 M. In the fermentation device, waste is raised along the rotating direction by friction with the inner surface of the cylinder, and falls down by means of self-weight. By rising and falling repeatedly, the waste is evenly turned over and contacted with the air supplied, and fermented by microorganisms. In addition, because the cylinder is oblique, when the waste lifted along the rotating direction falls by its own weight, it gradually moves to one end of the outlet of the cylinder, so that the rotary kiln can automatically and steadily supply, transport and discharge compost. The processing conditions of the device are summarized as follows:
The ventilated air temperature is normal in principle. For a 24-hour continuous operation device, the ventilation rate is 0.1 m3/(m3.mm), and the rotating speed of stirring in the cylinder should be 0.2-3.0 r/min. If the whole fermentation process is completed in this device, the residence time should be 2-5 days. The filling rate of cylinder is generally as follows: waste volume in cylinder/cylinder capacity is less than capacity. The average temperature of compost in the whole fermentation process is 50-60 when the device is used, and the maximum temperature can reach 70-80 high. When the device is used for one fermentation, the average temperature is 35-45, and the maximum temperature can be about 60 high.
3 silo type compost fermentation silo
Silo-type compost fermentation silo is a single-layer cylindrical (or rectangular) fermentation silo, the depth of fermentation silo is generally 4-5 M. The upper part is provided with a feed inlet and a scraper diversion device, and the lower part is provided with a screw discharger. Most of them are made of reinforced concrete. High-pressure centrifugal fan was used to supply oxygen in fermentation chamber to maintain aerobic fermentation of compost in fermentation chamber. Air generally enters the fermentation bin from the bottom of the silo, and composting material enters from the top of the silo. After 6-12 days of aerobic fermentation, the compost with initial maturity was discharged from the bottom of the silo through the discharger. According to the movement form of compost in fermentation bin, silo fermentation bin can be divided into static and dynamic.
(1) Silo-type static fermentation bin.
The device is a single-layer cylinder with stacking height of 4-5 M. The compost enters the silo through the distributor from the top of the silo. After 10-12 days of aerobic fermentation, the compost is discharged by the screw discharger at the bottom of the silo. Because there is no repetitive cutting device in the warehouse, the raw materials are compacted and lumpy, the ventilation performance is poor, the ventilation resistance is large, the power consumption is large, and the product is difficult to homogenize. However, the device occupies a small area and has a high utilization rate of fermentation bin, which is its advantage. The structure of this device is simple, so it is widely used.
(2) Silo-type dynamic fermentation silo.
The silo-type dynamic fermentation silo is a single-layer cylindrical silo with a stacking height of 1.5-2 M. During the operation of the dynamic fermentation bin, the crushed wastes sorted by the pretreatment process are transferred to the middle of the top of the tank by the feeder, and then uniformly distributed by the feeder to the tank. The screw drill located in the rotating layer stirs the wastes in the tank by revolution and rotation, so as to prevent the formation of grooves, and the shape and arrangement of the screw drills can pass through. Maintain a uniform distribution of air. Waste falls from the top down in the pond by gravity. Rotary cutting screw device with revolution and rotation is installed at the bottom of the pool. Whether the upper rotating layer rotates or not, the product can be discharged from the bottom of the pool. The air required for aerobic fermentation is forced into the bottom of the pond through the air distribution board. In order to maintain the aerobic environment in the pond and promote fermentation, forced ventilation from the bottom of the pond was adopted by blower. By measuring the temperature and gas concentration in each section of the pool, the air quantity supplied to each section can be adjusted and the rotation period of the bridge tower can be controlled to change the overturning frequency. The period of one fermentation is 5-7 days. In the composting process, the helical blades cut off the raw materials repeatedly, and the raw materials are pressed on the helical surface, which is easy to produce compacted lumps, so the ventilation performance is not very good. In addition, it also has some shortcomings, such as uneven residence time of raw materials, uneven product shape and not easy to seal. Its advantage is that the height of the outlet and the residence time of the raw material can be adjusted.
4 Box composting fermentation tank
There are many kinds of box-type composting fermentation ponds and their applications are very common. The main classifications of box-type composting fermentation ponds are as follows:
(1) Rectangular fixed plough-shaped overturned fermentation tank.
The box-type composting fermentation pool is equipped with plough-type upside-down mixing device. The device acts as a mechanical plough to dig waste. It can regularly agitate and move materials several times. It can keep the ventilation in the pool, make the materials evenly disperse, and also has transportation function. It can move materials from the feed end to the discharge end, and the materials stay in the pool for 5-10 days. The air is forced to ventilate through the air distributor at the bottom of the pool. Fermentation tank adopts conveying mixing device, which can increase the height of material accumulation.
(2) Fan bucket overturned fermentation tank.
This kind of fermentation tank is horizontally fixed. It is equipped with a dumper to mix the waste so that the humidity of the waste is uniform and in contact with the air, which promotes the rapid decomposition of compost and prevents the generation of odor. The residence time is 7 to 10 days. The frequency of dumping waste is once a day as the standard. The number of dumping can also be changed depending on the material properties. The fermentation plant has several characteristics in operation: the fermentation tank is equipped with a mixer and an overturning car mounted on the truck conveyor. When the waste is overturned, the overturning car runs on the fermentation tank. When the overturning operation is completed, the overturning car returns to the movable car. According to the handling capacity, sometimes the traveling crane structure can not be installed. Vehicle conveyor; When the material in the pond is overturned, the mixer is lifted by rope traction or mechanical piston tilting device, and when it is overturned again, the mixer can be put down to start mixing; In order to transfer the overturning vehicle from one fermentation pond to another fermentation pond, the track conveyor and crane can be used to scrape out the conveyor and belt conveyor. Feeder or swing conveyor, compost is agitated by mixer, conveyed by vehicle conveyor at the end of fermentation pool, and finally scraped out of the pool by scraper conveyor placed on movable car. Several specific stages of fermentation process are controlled by a compressor, and the required air is blown in from the bottom of fermentation pool.
(3) Crane overturned fermentation tank.
This kind of fermentation tank is usually used for secondary fermentation. The compostable materials which have been crushed and sorted by the pretreatment equipment or which have been fermented once are sent to the fermentation tank by the conveying equipment, and the compostable materials which are fed into the fermentation tank are piled up in the designated box fermentation tank by the shuttle conveying equipment. During accumulation, air is supplied from suction trough, and hopper crane is used to overturn material and perform vaccination operation at the same time.
(4) Horizontal blade fermentation tank
The agitator blade is attached to the mobile device and then moves. Because the mixing device can move horizontally and vertically, the mixing device moves the mixing material repeatedly vertically and transversely at the same time. Because stirring can be used throughout the fermentation tank, the fermentation tank can be designed very wide, so that the fermentation tank has greater processing capacity.
(5) Horizontal scraper fermentation tank.
The main component of the fermentation tank is a flaky scraper driven by gear and rack. The scraper swings from left to right to stir waste, returns from right to left without load, and then swings from left to right to push a certain amount of material. The amount of material pushed by the scraper can be adjusted. For example, when stirring once a day, adjustable push volume is required for a day. If the treatment capacity is large, the fermentation tank can be designed into a multi-stage structure. The pool body is a sealed negative pressure structure, so the odor does not escape. The fermentation tank has many ventilation holes to maintain aerobic condition. In addition, sprinkler and drainage facilities are installed to regulate humidity.
The type of composting equipment used and the corresponding composting process usually depend on the following factors:
- Types of solid waste;
- Establishing natural conditions of composting plant site (distance from residential area, topography, wind direction, etc.);
- Control level of secondary pollutants (leachate, odor gas) in composting process;
Investment and operation cost of plant construction.
Because of the superiority of geographical location, stacking composting can be widely used in rural areas and small towns. However, in some densely populated rural areas, farms, aquaculture farms, urban suburbs and other areas, the composting process with high efficiency for odor gas and leachate treatment should be chosen first.
Trend of development
The Seattle Solid Waste Utilities Bureau first implemented the Masterminer Program in the United States in 1986, marking the beginning of household composting, which mainly uses composting technology to treat yard waste and food waste. In 1995, 41% of Seattle households implemented household composting, diverting about 8 300 tons of yard waste, 82% of which was used for yard greening. There are studies. In the Mississauga area of Ontario, roadside collection, centralized composting and household composting cost $140 t-1, $190 T-1 and $50 t-1, respectively. Moreover, household composting can reduce the amount of household garbage by 3%-5%. Compared with centralized and large-scale composting systems, household composting has significant advantages: low cost and reduction of solid waste sources. In Seattle, there are two types of household composters for food waste: earthworm boxes and conical buckets. In the past, earthworm boxes were commonly used. Now, conical barrels are popular. The height of conical barrels is about 0.9 M. There is a basket with a height of 0.46 M. It can accommodate food waste produced by a family of three within 6 to 9 months. There are two kinds of household composters for yard waste: 0.34 m3 and 0.59 m3. Wood, recycled polyethylene and stainless steel are used to make household composters.
Composting toilets are suitable for places without or without water, such as large-scale composting toilets for parks, highways, stations, etc., and small-scale composting toilets for ships, etc. The commercial composting toilets are divided into self-contained and centralized ones, which can be operated intermittently or continuously, and are made of glass fibre and polyethylene. The self-contained composter is located next to the toilet, while the centralized composter is located next to the basement or building. Intermittent composting toilets contain more than one compartment. When one compartment is full, they are transferred to another compartment. Its advantage is that there is only one compartment in the composting toilet which can run continuously without contamination by fresh manure. Fresh manure and decomposed quasi-manure are mixed together.
Small Capacity Reactor Suitable for Field Operation
Because of the economic, odor control and site reasons, composting systems with large reactors, forced ventilation static stacking and strip stacking are greatly limited. Therefore, a portable, small-capacity reactor composting system suitable for field operation emerges as the times require. For example, Mulch Co. of County, UK, has built two mobile composting systems (30.584-38.23 m3 in volume) similar to rolling containers, with bucket loaders for feeding and cranes for lifting containers when discharging, and materials poured out from the back door of containers. Temperature and oxygen content are controlled by computer. Although this kind of system has only appeared for a few years, it is receiving more and more attention and application from small sewage treatment plants, food industry, catering industry, communities, schools, hospitals, research institutes and business groups. At present, it is mainly used for food waste treatment. The small capacity reactor composting system on the market includes box system, mixing bin and rotary digester, etc. But at present, the most commonly used one is box composting system. The system can be operated intermittently or continuously. It has the advantages of good process control, low investment and operation cost, simple equipment, easy operation and assembly, etc. But its greatest advantage is that it is easy to operate and assemble. Organic waste treatment technology is provided for groups or units that do not have enough space. Currently, 50 and 25 box composting systems are operating in the United States and Canada, respectively. A typical box-type composting system has a treatment scale of 1-40 t/d-1. It consists of several boxes, two of which are used as biofilters. In order to facilitate field operation, the mixing equipment and reactor are connected with the trailer.
In a word, the source of solid waste is more and more dispersed, and the amount of solid waste is also more and more, so the application scope of composting equipment will gradually expand. For different solid wastes, different composting equipments need to be adopted and developed. With the development of solid waste composting, household composters and small-capacity reactor composting systems emerge as the times require. On the one hand, home composters have been reduced from the source.
Bio Engine Composting
Decomposition Technology of Raw Chicken Manure Composting
Can chicken manure be used as organic fertilizer if it is not ripe? Chinese style
1. Not only chicken manure, but also human manure contains a lot of pathogens, eggs and parasites. Unripe manure can not be directly applied to crops.
2. Chicken manure will dissipate most of the heat in the process of ripening. If it is not fertilized directly, it will cause burning roots and seedlings of plants.
3. Nitrogen fertilizer in chicken manure originally existed in the form of protein. Plants could not use protein directly. Only when protein was decomposed into ammonia after fermentation, can they be used by plants.
How to decompose chicken manure?
Chicken manure must be fully decomposed before it is applied. The parasites and eggs in chicken manure, as well as some infectious pathogens, are inactivated through the decomposition process. Because chicken manure produces high temperature in the process of decomposition, it is easy to cause nitrogen loss. Therefore, it is better to add water and 5% calcium superphosphate before chicken manure is decomposed. Chicken manure has become a good base fertilizer for crop cultivation after full maturation. It can be used for all kinds of flowers, seedlings, crops and fruit trees.
The traditional method is to compost chicken manure for fermentation and maturation, which usually takes 3-4 months to mature. Nowadays, through the rapid biological decomposition technology of Nongshengle chicken manure, the decomposition rate can be 10-20 times faster than the traditional method by aerobic fermentation, and the protein and other substances of chicken manure can be converted into more easily absorbed elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After complete decomposition, chicken manure can hardly smell odor. Fermentation of chicken manure with Nongshengle Fecal Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation Fermentation has the advantages of low dosage, good effect and fast speed. Generally, chicken manure can be completely decomposed in 7-15 days. If the fermentation material is pure chicken manure, under normal conditions, the C/N ratio is generally less than 20, it should be added with appropriate amount of straw, sawdust and other materials with high C/N ratio. Straw can be added as much as chicken manure to mediate the C/N ratio, and because compost fermentation is aerobic fermentation, straw can enhance the looseness and permeability of chicken manure, which is more conducive to fermentation.
Note: It is recommended to use rice, corn, wheat, sawdust and other plant straw with larger carbon and nitrogen content, and to avoid using straw with smaller carbon and nitrogen content, such as beans. Chinese style
Method of decomposition of chicken manure: Before fermentation, mix all kinds of materials evenly and reserve them. During fermentation, the manure starter of Nongshengle was diluted and mixed with chicken manure mixture at the ratio of 1:200. Then it could be accumulated and fermented. The fermentation process is dumped 1-2 times, and the decomposition can be completed in 7-15 days according to the season.
Knowledge of organic fertilizer clinker: The ratio of total carbon content to total nitrogen content in organic matter is called carbon-nitrogen ratio, and their ratio is called carbon-nitrogen ratio.
C/N ratio of common plants:
- In general, the C/N ratios of gramineous crop stalks such as rice stalks, corn stalks and weeds are very high, reaching 60-100:1.
- The C/N ratio of leguminous crop stalks is relatively small, such as the C/N ratio of general leguminous green manure is 15-20:1.
Effects of different C/N ratios on Composting
The decomposition and mineralization of organic matter with high C/N ratio is difficult or slow. The reason is that when microorganisms decompose organic matter, they need to assimilate about one part of nitrogen to form their own cell body when they assimilate five parts of carbon, because the carbon-nitrogen ratio of microorganisms is about 5:1. In order to assimilate (absorb and utilize) one portion of carbon, four portions of organic carbon are needed to obtain energy, so 25 portions of organic carbon are needed for microorganisms to absorb and utilize one portion of nitrogen. That is to say, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen of microorganism decomposition of organic matter is 25:1. If the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is too large, the decomposition of microorganisms will be slow and the available nitrogen in soil will be consumed. Therefore, when applying organic fertilizers (such as rice straw) with high C/N ratio or composting materials with high C/N ratio, more N-containing fertilizers should be added to regulate C/N ratio. On the contrary, there are too many nitrogen elements in chicken manure, so more carbon elements such as straw should be added. Chinese style
How to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent:
In order to reduce the use cost of chicken manure ripening agent, the manure fermentation strain (original strain) was developed and manufactured. Users could use the manure fermentation strain to cultivate the fermentation agent by themselves, which could reduce the cost by 10 times. Chinese style
Benefits of Feed Fermentation
- Increase feed utilization rate and reduce feeding cost;
- Detoxification and detoxification, improve palatability and intake;
- Improving animal immunity and reducing fecal discharge;
- Enhance meat quality and flavor to make meat delicious.
Ways to Make Composts
How to Compost
The Method of Making Compost Fertilizer from Straw
- Method of composting:
- Site selection Fertilizer-making site should be located in the leeward sunward area with flat terrain and close to the water source, which can be made in the open air all the year round. A kind of
- Material preparation (Take 1 ton of dry straw as an example)
(1) 1000 kg of crop straw.
(2) 20 kg corn flour or wheat bran or rice bran, and 5-10 kg urea can be added if conditions permit.
(3) Bacillus Yikang compost fermentation strain 400g (two bags of this product).
(1) The length of straw (e.g. corn straw) should be 1-3 centimeters when it is crushed or cut by a hay cutter (wheat straw, rice straw, leaves, weeds, peanut seedlings, bean straw, etc.) can be fermented directly, but the fermentation effect is better after crushing.
(2) Water the crushed or cut straw with water to wet and permeate, and the moisture content of straw is generally controlled at about 60%.
(3) Mix 20 kilograms of corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) with 400 grams of bacteria. Sprinkle corn flour (or wheat bran or rice bran) mixed with bacteria evenly on the surface of straw irrigated with water by hand. Use spade and other tools to turn over and mix, stack into long strips of 2 meters wide, 1.5 meters high and unlimited length, and cover them tightly with plastic cloth.
(1) Warming up stage: from room temperature to 45 C, generally only one day, at this time can turn over the stack.
(2) In the future, when the heap temperature reaches above 60 C, it needs to be turned over, and the basic state of decomposition can be reached in 15-20 days, and the fertilizer can be applied directly. Maturity mark straw turns brown or black-brown, soft and elastic when wet, brittle and fragile when dry.
(1) Straw fertilizer is generally used as base fertilizer and can be applied wetly. Soil should be covered for topdressing. Semi-decomposed fertilizer is applied to crops with longer growth period, straw fertilizer with higher maturity is applied to crops such as melons, fruits and vegetables with shorter growth period, semi-decomposed fertilizer is used in sandy soil, and fertilizer with higher maturity is best applied to clay soil.
(2) Straw fertilizer is rich in organic matter, balanced nutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and contains various trace elements. It is a suitable fertilizer for all kinds of crops and soils. It has remarkable effects on improving crop quality and increasing yield. A kind of
Note: It is suggested that 20-30% livestock and poultry manure or other organic substances should be properly added in composting, so that the fertilizer efficiency is better and more comprehensive.
（3）Rapid Fermentation of Straw Returning to Field:
Quick Returning Technology: Digging Trough – Stacking Straw – Adding Bacteria and Yikang – Sealing
1) Digging trough: Digging a low trough 1.5-2 m wide and 0.3 m deep in idle fields such as fields and courtyards, the length of which can be determined according to the amount of straw. _
2) Stacking straw: According to the standard of 60% moisture content of straw (i.e. holding the water in groups and keeping the watermarking by hand without dripping, it is appropriate to lay down and disperse), so that the straw can absorb enough moisture and accumulate straw in the tank.
3) Adding organic fertilizer starter: first, add 1 bag (200g) of Bacteria Yikang to dilute 20 kg corn flour or rice bran or wheat bran (1000 kg straw material), then stack straw while adding animal manure or urea to adjust C/N ratio and evenly sprinkle corn flour with Bacteria Yikang. Or rice bran or wheat bran.
4) Sealing: When the pile is about 1:5 meters high, photograph it and seal it with clay or plastic film. About 15 days in summer and 40 days in winter can be fertilized and returned to the field.
Quick in-situ Returning Technology of Straw Returning to the Field: Straw Crushing-Adding Bacteria Yikang and Feces-Sealing-Tillage-Tillage
1) Straw crushing: The straw is crushed into small segments of about 3-4 cm with a crusher.
2) Add Bacteria Yikang: first, add 2 bags of Bacteria Yikang (400 grams) into 40 kg corn flour or rice bran, wheat bran dilution; decomposed feces and urine 300 kg; all kinds of straw 700 kg. Mix the above materials well, then add water, adjust the moisture content of straw to about 60%, accumulate in the earth and compact slightly. A kind of
3) Sealing: After accumulating the material, the material is sealed with mud. A kind of
4) Tillage: Sprinkle the rotten straw evenly on the ground, and immediately carry out deep tillage, raking and further maturation of the straw.
Rapid Decomposition and Return of Rice Straw to Field Technology Harvesting Fertilizing Adding Green Seedlings to Strengthen Throwing Seedlings
1) Harvesting: one is to keep high stubble harvested, tail grass left in the field, 100% straw returned to the field; the other is low stubble harvested, after threshing also returned to the field in full.
2) Fertilization: Planned application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the field.
3) Bacterial Yikang: According to 1000 kg of straw, add 500 grams of Bacterial Yikang, evenly sprinkle in the field. When applied, the water layer in the field was 2-3 cm.
4) Seedling throwing: After applying Bacillus Yikang, the farmland can be thrown for one day. When throwing rice seedlings, the surface of the field should maintain a certain water layer. The water layer of the high stubble paddy field and straw strip mulch is shallow, 2-3 cm. The paddy field covered with straw is deep, about 5 cm. Submerged straw is the standard to ensure the contact between seedling roots and water.
Technical Operating Points
1) Adequate moisture: straw must absorb enough water, the moisture content is generally controlled at about 60%. A kind of
2) Adjust the appropriate C/N: Add appropriate amount of animal manure or nitrogen fertilizer to regulate the C/N of the compost.
3) Blend material: Bacteria Yikang added should be evenly sprinkled in straw, or stirred evenly with utensils.
4) Ventilation: Microorganisms ferment faster under aerobic conditions, and the condition of ventilation will directly affect the stalk maturation rate. So don’t step on it when stacking, in order to facilitate ventilation. After stacking, it is sealed with mud mixed with straw. When the temperature in the stack exceeds 65 degrees, ventilation or dump should be adopted.
5) Sealing: When stacking, the surrounding and top of the reactor should be sealed to prevent water evaporation and nutrient loss.
6) Warming up: When composting straw in winter or cold area, plastic film is added to the compost to increase the temperature. Fourth, attention should be paid to the sufficient moisture content of materials for stacking and composting, the uniform mixing, sealing, heat preservation and water retention, so as to ensure that straw is quickly matured and accumulated without stepping on it, and take a slight photo.
Last, the suitable area, all kinds of straw crops can be treated by straw composting and returning technology after harvesting.